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Hippocrates (Father of Medicine)- he stated that diseases have natural causes and the has the power to repair itself.  Aristotle (Greatest Ancient Scientist)- excelled in making observations made the most significant biological contributions.  Galen (Greatest Biologist of Antiquity)- to study human anatomy and carried with the first physiological experiment in animals. 3. Renaissance 14th-6th Century Leonardo da Vinci and Michael Angelo- made accurate studies in plants, animals, and human anatomy.  Andreas Vesalius- published his book “The Structure of Human Body”.

William Harvey- described blood circulation in man, which contributed to physiology.  Anton Van Leeuwenhock (Father of Microbiology)- Modern Biology  Robert Hooke- discovered cell by observing tiny compartments from a thin slice of cork from a tree bark. Matthias Schleiden (Botanist) and Theodore Schwann (Zoologist)- claimed that all animal and all plants are made up of cells.  Rudolf Virchow- Eventually established the concept of the cell theory.  Francesco Redi- disapproved the Spontaneous Generation Theory. -Biogenesis.

Carolus Linnaeus/Carl Von Linnae (Father of Taxonomy)- established the system of nomenclature in which all living things are arranged by genera and species.  Jean Baptise Lamarck- proposed the theory of evolution.  Charles Darwin (Father of Evolution)- who proposed the natural selection as an explanation by which evolutionary changes takes place.  Louise Pasteur (Father of Modern Biology)- introduced the pasteurization process and discovered anti rabies vaccines.  Karl Von Baer- founded comparative embryology.  Gregor Mendel- made studied on Genetics.

Hugo de Vries- formulated the “Mutation Theory”. Ernest H. Starling- hormones. Branches of Biology  Anatomy- study of internal structures of living things.  Bacteriology- study of bacteria.  Botany- study of plants.  Biochemistry- the use of chemistry in the study of living things.  Biological Earth Sciences- the use of sciences, such as geography in the study of living things.  Biological Psychology- is the use of biology in psychological studies. Biogeography- study of geographical distribution of living things. * Cytology- study of the ultra structure of the cell.


Phytopathology- study of diseases in plants.  Taxonomy- the classification and naming of living things. * Virology- study of viruses.  Zoology- study of animals.  Zoogeography- study of distribution of animals on earth. Scientific Method- scientific way in solving problem.  Question- have made careful observations in an attempt to answer them, they must do something with their data.  Hypothesis- must be tested continually and changed frequently as new facts are discovered . Experiment- is a procedure designed to discuss which factors in a given situation.

Theory- repeatedly verified and appears to have a wide application in biology may assume that status of biological principle. Principle- is a statement that applies with a high degree of probability, to a range of events. Basic and Applied Research  Basic Research- includes those investigations that are not directed at immediate practical applications.  Applied Research- is directed toward the solution of a problem that is of immediate concern to someone or, in some case, toward applying new scientific discovery to practical uses. CHAPTER 2 2. 1The Characteristics of Life

A. Living Things Are Organized Cell- is the smallest and most basic unit of life.  Unicellular- made up of single cell.  Multicellular- made up of many types of cell. Tissues- composed of cells. Organs- composed of tissues. Organ System- composed of organs. Organism- the different organ systems work together. B. Living Things Acquire Materials and Energy Metabolism-the chemical process of getting energy from nutrient molecules of food and using it to maintain the structure and function of a cell.  Anabolism- is called as the constructive or building up phase.

Catabolism-is the destructive or breaking down phase. C. Homeostasis – is the maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though environmental conditions are constantly changing. D. Living Things Reproduce, Grow, and Develop Reproduction- the ability to produce offspring are two vital signs of life.  Asexual Reproduction- only one single parent is needed. Sexual Reproduction- requires two parents. Growth- the process of enlargement and conversion of simple building materials into typical structural parts.

* Hippocrates (Father of Medicine)- he stated that diseases have natural causes and the has the power to repair itself. * Aristotle (Greatest Ancient Scientist)- excelled in making observations made the most significant biological contributions. * Galen (Greatest Biologist of …

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What is Science? – a dynamic, cumulative system of verifiable facts, concepts (theories, laws, and principles) and methods – could be used to explain or predict a phenomenon What is Biology? – scientific study of living organisms How to conduct …

When taking any sort of medications, there is almost always some potential for risks, side effects and complications to occur. While many of the potential side effects and complications that can arise with medications are minor or uncommon, there are …

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