Give/research the origin the complete details of csr evolution from the period 1800 down to year 2000 highlighting the issues like mazimization of profits. The critical question is: To what extentshould a business pursue pro? ts ? Carroll (1991, p. 41) observes that the pro? t principle was originallys et in terms of ‘acceptable pro? ts’; however, the principle transformed to ‘pro? t maximization’. The doc-trine of pro?
t maximization is endorsed by theclassical economic view led by the late Milton Fried-man (1962) where ‘there is one and only one socialresponsibility of business – to use it resources and engage in activities designed Biology is the scientific study of life. Science is a way of knowing the truth about the natural world. 2 underlying principles are critical to science 1)Causality- the occurence of events is due to natural causes 2)Uniformity- the laws of nature operated and always will operate in the same way Reasoning in Science.
Scientific Reasoning- intellectual method to get at the truth a)Inductive reasoning- reaching a conclusion based upon a number of observations that is going from the specific to the general b)Deductive reasoning- other side of the coin Scope and subdivisions of Biological Sciences Botany- study of plants Zoology- study of animals Anatomy- structural oranization of plants and animals Bacteriology- deals with the study of bacteria Biochemistry- deals with substances found in living organisms Biophysics- study of biological phenomena.
Biotechnology- body of technology related to the use of organisms, cells for the purpose of developing products. Cytology- study of the structure and function of cells Ecology- study of the relationship of plants and animals to their physical and biological environment Embryology- deals with the development of living organism Entomology- deals with the study of insects Evolution- studies the process whereby all living things on earth have diverged. Genetics- study of how physical, biochemical, and behavioral traits are transmitted from parents to their offsprings.
Histology- microscopic study of animal and plant tissues Mammalogy- study of mammals or animals with glands. Neuroscience- concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology,biochemistry of the nervous system. Paleontology- deals with the studyt of fossils Parasitology- study of parasites Pharmacology- study of the origin, nature, properties of drugs Physiology- study of the physical and chemical processes that take place in living organisms Sociobiology- investigates biological bases of social behavior of animals Taxonomy- deals with the classification of plants and animals.
Hypothesis- tentative solution or generalization to a problem Theory- general truth about the natural world but not yet generally accepted. Scientific law- once the theory is universally accepted it becomes a law Scientific method- combination of the creative reasoning and testing of hypothesis Step by step procedures: 1)Identify the problem 2)Gather specific data or information 3)Formulate a hypothesis 4)Experiment and series of observation 5)Formulate conclusion or generalization 6)Communicate the result 7)Apply the result.
Scientific attitude- is a way of looking at things governed by factsbased on observations The following are attitudes that one should possess in order to become more successful in the chosen field: A belief that problems have solutions A respect for power of theoretical structure A thirst for knowledge, an “intellectual drive” Ability to seperate fundamental concepts from the irrelevant or unimportant Ability to suspend judjment An appreciation of probability and statistics An automatic preference for scientific explanation An understanding that all knowledge has tolerance limits.
Awareness of assumptions Determinism Empathy for the human conditon Empirism Loyalty to reality Parsimony Precision Respect for quantification and appreciation of mathematics as language of science Respect for scientific paradigms Scientific manipulation Skepcticism Willingness to change opinion Limitations of Science 1)Science cannot answer questions about value 2)Science cannot answer questions of morality 3)The scientific method is limited in that it cannot deal with the unique 4)Finally, science cannot help us with questions about the supernatural. 5).