* Hippocrates (Father of Medicine)- he stated that diseases have natural causes and the has the power to repair itself. * Aristotle (Greatest Ancient Scientist)- excelled in making observations made the most significant biological contributions. * Galen (Greatest Biologist of Antiquity)- to study human anatomy and carried with the first physiological experiment in animals. 3. Renaissance 14th-6th Century * Leonardo da Vinci and Michael Angelo- made accurate studies in plants, animals, and human anatomy. * Andreas Vesalius- published his book “The Structure of Human Body”.
* William Harvey- described blood circulation in man, which contributed to physiology. * Anton Van Leeuwenhock (Father of Microbiology)- Modern Biology * Robert Hooke- discovered cell by observing tiny compartments from a thin slice of cork from a tree bark. * Matthias Schleiden (Botanist) and Theodore Schwann (Zoologist)- claimed that all animal and all plants are made up of cells. * Rudolf Virchow- Eventually established the concept of the cell theory. * Francesco Redi- disapproved the Spontaneous Generation Theory. -Biogenesis.
* Carolus Linnaeus/Carl Von Linnae (Father of Taxonomy)- established the system of nomenclature in which all living things are arranged by genera and species. * Jean Baptise Lamarck- proposed the theory of evolution. * Charles Darwin (Father of Evolution)- who proposed the natural selection as an explanation by which evolutionary changes takes place. * Louise Pasteur (Father of Modern Biology)- introduced the pasteurization process and discovered anti rabies vaccines. * Karl Von Baer- founded comparative embryology. * Gregor Mendel- made studied on Genetics.
* Hugo de Vries- formulated the “Mutation Theory”. * Ernest H. Starling- hormones. Branches of Biology * Anatomy- study of internal structures of living things. * Bacteriology- study of bacteria. * Botany- study of plants. * Biochemistry- the use of chemistry in the study of living things. * Biological Earth Sciences- the use of sciences, such as geography in the study of living things. * Biological Psychology- is the use of biology in psychological studies. * Biogeography- study of geographical distribution of living things. * Cytology- study of the ultra structure of the cell.
* Entomology- study of insects. * Embryology- study of the formation and development of living things from fertilization to birth, to an independent organism. * Ecology- study of relationships of living things to each other and their environment. * Endocrinology- study of hormones and their actions. * Ethology- study of animal behaviour. * Genetics-study of science of heredity and variation among living organisms. * Herpetology- study of reptiles and amphibians. * Histology- study of tissues. * Helmintology-study of worms. * Ichthyology- study of fishes.
* Lichenology- study of lichens. * Mammalogy- study of mammals. * Microbiology- study of microorganisms. * Mycology- study of fungi. * Ornithology- study of birds. * Parasitology- study of parasites. * Phycology- study of algae. * Pharmacology- study of actions of chemicals on and in living things. * Physiology- study of the normal functions of the living things. * Paleontology- study of fossils. * Protozoology- study of one-celled organism. * Phytogeography- study ofgeographical distribution of plants on earth. * Pathology- study of diseases, generally in animals.
* Phytopathology- study of diseases in plants. * Taxonomy- the classification and naming of living things. * Virology- study of viruses. * Zoology- study of animals. * Zoogeography- study of distribution of animals on earth. Scientific Method- scientific way in solving problem. * Question- have made careful observations in an attempt to answer them, they must do something with their data. * Hypothesis- must be tested continually and changed frequently as new facts are discovered . * Experiment- is a procedure designed to discuss which factors in a given situation.
* Theory- repeatedly verified and appears to have a wide application in biology may assume that status of biological principle. * Principle- is a statement that applies with a high degree of probability, to a range of events. Basic and Applied Research * Basic Research- includes those investigations that are not directed at immediate practical applications. * Applied Research- is directed toward the solution of a problem that is of immediate concern to someone or, in some case, toward applying new scientific discovery to practical uses. CHAPTER 2 2. 1The Characteristics of Life.
A. Living Things Are Organized Cell- is the smallest and most basic unit of life. * Unicellular- made up of single cell. * Multicellular- made up of many types of cell. Tissues- composed of cells. Organs- composed of tissues. Organ System- composed of organs. Organism- the different organ systems work together. B. Living Things Acquire Materials and Energy Metabolism-the chemical process of getting energy from nutrient molecules of food and using it to maintain the structure and function of a cell. * Anabolism- is called as the constructive or building up phase.
* Catabolism-is the destructive or breaking down phase. C. Homeostasis – is the maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though environmental conditions are constantly changing. D. Living Things Reproduce, Grow, and Develop Reproduction- the ability to produce offspring are two vital signs of life. * Asexual Reproduction- only one single parent is needed. * Sexual Reproduction- requires two parents. Growth- the process of enlargement and conversion of simple building materials into typical structural parts.