Introduction of Cancer

?Cancer has become a challenge that faces the entire world population. According to the World Health Organization (2004), cancer is the main leading cause of death in economically developed and developing countries respectively. Specifically, American Cancer Society (2012) declares that about 1,638,910 new cancer cases are estimated to be diagnosed and 577,190 people tend to die from it in the United States during 2012.

According to New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services (1998), cancer emergence increases significantly in people over 45 years of age, while it is also the major cause of non-accidental death among American children under age 15. Moreover, the probable survivability for all cancers cases between 2001 and 2007 is only 67 percent. Compared with former years, a higher percentage of people diagnosed with cancer are less cured. New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services also estimates that today around four out of every ten people diagnosed with cancer will survive for more than five years.

Whereas there are still a large number of people in the world suffering from the disease and greatly influenced both physically and mentally. Consequently, cancer is a global health issue that people should attach importance to. The essay will focus on the social, political, environmental and economic causes contributing to cancer globally. Social reasons, political causes are also giant concerns as they are problematic and undoubtedly increased the probability of suffering from cancer. There are two main political factors which increase the risk of cancer: the government’s omission of attention and incomplete medical care system.

According to the first factor, it has been declared by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2011) that many governments in some countries pay slight attention to health care, such as Arica, India, Indonesia and China. Health spending by governments per year has a wide variation between these countries and numerous developed countries. There is evidence that in the developing countries, health expenditure is usually solely a minor portion of the total government spending, sometimes approximately hundreds of times less than is spent per capita in high income countries.

The WHO (n. d. ) reports that sub-Saharan Africa, with 11% of the world’s population, account for less than 1% of global health expenditure. On the contrary, America, having 14% of the worlds’ population, took more than 50% of the global health expenses. Moreover, OECD (2011) states that spending on health services, merchandises and research is higher in the United States than any other places in the world. Additionally, in some poor districts, the governments rarely propagate the knowledge related to cancer. As a result, the undereducated public are unaware of the benefits of prevention.

Many governments even ignore a few severe phenomena such as unqualified foods production and sewage discharge, which may engender cancer. Nevertheless, they hardly take reasonable measures. For example, there is a piece of news on China Youth Daily (2005) showed that a factory in Beijing, Chaoyang District, near residence community discharges excessive gas which is carcinogenic and many residences have complained about it. However, the government did not respond timely in manner because they do not have adequate provisions.

All of the above show that the work the local government provides is not sufficient, and this raises the possibility of suffering from cancer. In addition to the government’s omission of attention, the medical care system also needs to assume the responsibility because of its incomplete strategies. According to International Network for Cancer Treatment and Research (2012), a great number of poor patients only receive acceptable remedies instead of optimal treatments and those who are unaffordable are sent home to die.

Moreover, health professionals searching for improved specialty and financial rewards are employed and recruited by high income countries, such as America, England and Germany, leaving the poorer section of the population with even less prospect to cure optimally. For instance, the Center for Global Development states that at least 40% of African born physicians work outside their homeland. Another austere aspect is that a few physicians often put their own interests at first. In recent years, doctors still receive kickbacks from what they ask patients to do. Relman (n.

d. ), a physician and editor of the New England Journal of Medicine, points out that under the fee-for-service atmosphere, the longer the patient stays in the hospital and the more services he takes over, the more the doctor is paid. In this way, doctors become the person adding to invalids’ burden rather than the agent offering patients necessary advice, thus patients’ cure rate becomes small. Whereas, with the efforts of all parts concerned, the grim situation will be relieved. Besides the political reasons, there are three main environmental causes of cancer, such as

Environmental Tobacco Smoke, air pollution and asbestos exposure. The first reason which is also called second-hand smoke is a primary environmental hazard which increases the risk of lung cancer. According to Surgeon General (2006), virtually half of the non-smoking people are termly exposed to second-hand smoke. Women and children, who are the main victims, always suffer from ETS in families and public, though they never smoke. Ellen (2002) illustrates that the risk of lung cancer accelerates by 20% in non-smokers exposed to ETS. This means that a large number of people are under the threaten of cancer.

A research from Eldridge (2012) shows that ETS should be responsible for 1. 6% of lung cancer in the United States. Apart from this, ETS has also been associated with other types of cancer, such as nasal cavity, cervix, breast, and bladder cancer. Since ETS has a severe influence on cancer, smokers should provide others with a smoke-free environment. Another factor is the air pollution which is also responsible for lung cancer. Air pollution from traffic and the inflammation of coal, diesel fuel and wood, has a modest link to lung cancer.

Consequently, there is a virtual difference between the infection of lung cancer in the urban and the countryside. Cancer cases are more common in cities than rural areas because of the serious air pollution. It was estimated by Eldridge (2012) that, in a 2009 U. S. study, 5% of male lung cancers and 3% of lung cancers in women during 1970 and 1994 were associated with air pollutants. With urbanization and industrialization becoming more prevalent, the people have a more convenient life. However, they also have to suffer from the pollution it brings them. All of these are bound to increase the risk of many diseases including cancer.

The third issue is asbestos exposure which is connected with lung, larynx, and gastrointestinal tract cancer, as well as the rare mesothelioma cancer. Individuals with the combination of asbestos exposure and smoking have the highest risk of cancer. Thackery (2002) states that smoking increases risk of lung cancer by ten times more than for the non-smokers also exposed to asbestos. An accident occurring in September 11, 2001 attacked on the World Trade Centre (WTC) in New York, which makes people at the site are at a high risk of developing a disease related to asbestos.

Since the North Tower of the WTC was constructed with asbestos, when the building was devastated, hundreds of tons of asbestos were delivered into the atmosphere. Environ Health Perspect (2004) shows that around 70% of WTC survived and recovery workers were diagnosed with a new illness or their breathing symptoms were even worse while work at the WTC site and nearly 28% of those examined had abnormal lung function tests. Furthermore, 61% of individuals without previous health issues developed respiratory symptoms.

Today, since government regulations and public pay more attention to the health hazards of asbestos exposure, the use of it in the United States has decreased rapidly. Therefore, workplace practices containing asbestos are highly conducted by industry and government to minimize worker exposure. In this way, the rate of cancer causes by asbestos exposure can reduce to a low level. Except for the environmental factors, economy also plays an important role. There are two primary economic causes making cancer a globe health problem, the poverty and the economic burden.

Poverty is considered as a promoting risk issue in the development of cancer. According to Chan and Amano (2011), there are 7. 6 million cancer deaths each year and 4. 8 million in the developing countries. It is believed that if measures were not taken, the number of deaths will expand rapidly though this number in prosperous countries is still increasing. Furthermore, Chan and Amano (2011) also states that in some poor African districts, less than 15% of the patients with cervical and breast cancer can survive for five years after being diagnosed.

INTCR (2012) declares that on account of poverty, people’s livings frequently fall into a worse situation, for instance, some low-income countries are short of the government funds for health care systems, medical equipment, human resource such as professors and materials for medicinal science. Since poverty is the crucial reason why cancer patients cannot be diagnosed timely, it also leads patients to give up hospitalization. It has been reported by Paulson (2011) that, in recent years, the number of young women with breast cancer has exceeded the double amount of 1980’s.

The significant majority of this is in the developing countries and women there lack awareness of recognizing the cancer and treating it. Nevertheless, in some wealthy countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom, women are benefiting greatly from their health care system. However, Silberner (2012) announces women with breast cancer in Uganda do not come to hospitals until cancer cells spread throughout the whole body because they hold the mistaken view that their breast will be lopped off and their husbands will leave them. In consequence, poverty is a chief factor of cancer that should not be neglected.

Apart from poverty, another economic factor makes the cancer become a global health issue is the large economic burden. The economic burden occurs ubiquitously in the world. In lower income countries, people are concerned about the guarantee of their daily life, whereas in higher income countries, workers are confronting the enormous economic stress such as employment and unemployment. The massive economic pressure causes depression, which likewise brings about smoking and drinking. Owing to the stress experience every day, people are constantly going through a fast tempo of life resulting in lacking physiologic exercises.

Moreover, irregular life style can lead to eating disorder, such as excessive eating of junk food. Breast Cancer Institute (2010) states that physical activities, stress, weight, high alcohol abusing and dietary factors can play momentous roles in women’s breast cancer. Additionally, economic status can also have an effect on men. An appropriate example of this is a survey about prostate cancer conducted in 22895 Norwegian men at the age of forty and the result interprets men in high-income occupation are more likely to increase the risks of prostate cancer (Nilsen, Johnsen & Vatten, 2000).

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