The aim for my training programme is to gain a V0 max (this is level 10 on the multistage fitness test. ) Also I want to improve the strength within my arm muscles (Biceps brachii, Triceps brachii, middle/anterior/posterior deltoid, Trapezius) and the flexibility within my shoulder joint as I feel improving these elements will help to improve the accuracy of my passing. Flexibility/suppleness in the shoulder joint is required when throwing. The head of the humerus fits into a very shallow cavity on the scapula called the glenoid fossa.
This ball and socket joint allows free movement, or certainly as much movement as the shape of the articulating surfaces permits. The greater the range of movement at the shoulder joint, the greater range in which muscles can apply force and therefore the ball can be thrown to a further distance. Netballers need to have a great range of flexibility in the shoulder joint, to allow them to pass the ball powerfully and therefore minimise the chances of interception by the opposition.
Netball consists of the players continuously passing the ball, so strength endurance in the biceps brachii and triceps trachea is essential which enables players to pass the ball accurately with speed and power throughout the game. Strength endurance in the leg muscles (Gastrocnemius, Semitendinosus, Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus, Vastus medialis, Rectus femoris, Vastus lateralis) is also necessary as the position I play includes a lot of running. A good level of strength endurance will ensure that fatigue doesn’t affect your performance.
Lack of strength endurance is highlighted in the last quarter of many matches in which a player complains of “jelly legs”. This is usually accompanied by decreased performance in skills requiring muscular strength or power (i. e. passing the ball). My goals are exciting and I feel I will find them challenging as my cardiovascular endurance is already quite high so improving this will require commitment and motivation. The principles of training Before designing my training programme, I will need to consider the principles of training.
Therefore, the circuit can be designed to improve specific areas that need improving. This must be done at a safe rate so that injuries are prevented and also to prevent plateauing too soon. There are 4 principles of training which apply to all fitness training: Any type of training must be specific the individual, the activity and the energy systems. It is important to assess your initial state of fitness, so that the workload can be accurately estimated. Everyone has limitations, being aware of your physiological capabilities will help you make the most of your strength rather than highlight your weaknesses.
You must also identify the fitness components required in netball and the major joints and muscles used. My training programme will involve the use of these muscle groups and joints and it will also include reproducing the movement patterns that you would use in a game situation. Identify the energy systems used during netball and their overall contribution to the total energy expenditure. My training programme will be specific to netball and I have chose to concentrate on a particular part of the body as every exercise has a specific effect on each of the parts of the body. The circuit will consist of 8 stations.
The resistance used in the circuit, is my own body weight and light weights and each exercise concentrates on a particular muscle group The exercises that I am going to include in my circuit are: Step ups – This exercise works on the leg muscles such as (Gastrocnemius, Semitendinosus, Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus, Vastus medialis, Rectus femoris, Vastus lateralis). It will improve muscular endurance in the legs which is needed in netball to maintain performance throughout the game, (i. e. cardiovascular fitness) For example, when running, marking your opponent, jumping, dodging etc.
Bicep curls – To improve strength endurance in the upper arm so that the ball can be released many times without the accuracy of your passing decreasing. Improved muscular endurance/ dynamic strength will ensure that my biceps brachii can contract repeatedly throughout the game without becoming tired. Sit ups – To improve the abdominal muscles so that the whole upper body can add power and strength to the explosive movement during the delivery of the pass. It will also help to keep my torso upright. As my body lowers to the floor my muscles will contract eccentrically, and when it is raised they are working concentrically.
Overhead passing with a medicine ball – This exercise relates to the game of netball. I am doing this exercise as I feel it will improve my elastic strength within my upper arms and so more power can be gained when passing the ball. Chest passes against a wall – This exercise relates it to the game of netball, so that my exercises are put into practise. I will be carrying out this exercise as fast as I can and so I hope to improve the muscular endurance in my upper arms and shoulders. Dorsal raises – Increases upper body strength and therefore assists the abdominals as strong abdominal muscles must be supported by strong back muscles.
I am also aiming to improve shoulder and spine flexibility. Improving flexibility in this area I feel is important as it will improve my body posture, so that there are no over tight muscles which can cause aches and pains. The majority of movements that occur during a game of netball require some flexibility in the back and this is an area that is prone to injury. Improved flexibility will result in a better performance and flexibility in the shoulders will allow a full range of movement at the ball and socket joint at the shoulder. This will then improve the force which I can throw the ball.
Tricep dips – To improve the strength endurance in the upper arms so I can pass the ball accurately throughout the game without becoming fatigued. Skipping – I am including this exercise in my circuit in order to improve my muscular endurance in my arms and legs and my cardiovascular fitness. Dynamic strength in my leg muscles and arm muscles may also be improved as both dynamic strength and muscular endurance are closely linked together because the muscles need to work continuously, supporting the body. This will enable you to maintain your performance throughout the game.
I will make sure I am at the station ready to start my next exercise, (My partner will do the timing) so that I don’t start the exercise late as this would affect my results. I will also have to make sure I stop soon as my partner calls me to stop, so that my results are accurate and consistent each week. I will be working as hard as I can, doing as many of the particular reps as I can (except for chest passes against a wall and overhead passes with a medicine ball as reps will be set for these practises. ) I will carry out the exercises the same each week. To ensure that I do this, I will perform them in the following way:
Step ups – I will step up and down onto a bench as quickly as possible. I will start by stepping up on my right leg, although I may need to change the starting leg if I find my leg(s) feeling tired. 1 rep is done each time I step up onto the bench. My partner will secure the bench when I carry out this exercise to stop it from turning over, which could cause accidents. Bicep curls – I will be ready with both dumbbells in my hands with both my arms by the side of my body. When my partner indicates for me to start I will flex the arm at the elbow, so that the biceps brachii contracts (the insertion moves towards the origin).
The arm is then fully extended back to the side of your body. 1 rep is when the bicep brachii contracts and the insertion moves towards the origin. Sit ups – I will use an abs cruncher. My knees will be bent and I will use my stomach muscles rather than my back muscles. 1 rep is done each time I sit up. A mat must be used so that you can perform the exercise to the best of your ability in comfort. It will also prevent injuries (i. e. back) Dorsal raises – I will start by lying flat on my stomach, raising the head and arching the back.
My feet will be placed under the wall apparatus so that I can arch my back as fully as possible. 1 rep is each time I raise my head to arch my back. I will arch my back as many times as I can in the given time. Skipping – I will skip as quickly as possible jumping with two feet together. 1 rep is every time I jump over the rope. Overhead passing with a medicine ball – I will carry out the required number of reps for this exercise. 1 rep is each overhead pass. I will aim to throw the ball as far as I can. My partner will fetch the ball and the practise will be repeated.
Chest passes against a wall – I will stand 1m from the wall (this will be measured out prior to beginning the circuit and will be marked with a cone. ) the required number of reps for this exercise will be carried out. 1 rep is each chest pass. I will aim to pass the ball as fast as I can against the wall. Tricep dips – I will place my hands on the bench (my arms will be holding up and supporting my body); bend my knees so that they are 90 degrees to my body with my feet firmly on the floor. I bend my elbows and then straighten them again. 1 rep is each time my elbows straighten.