Human cloning can be loosely defined as the creation of genetically identical copy of a human being, cells or tissues of the body. This is done by the use of cells biologically referred to as stem cells. In order to clone an organ, a stem cell is produced from the original animal and used for the cloning of that specific organ in the other animal’s tissue. Cloning does not produce a true and exact copy of the original but it produces copies of DNA/Genes of original person and hence creates a genetically duplicate of the original.
We can therefore correctly say it’s not a true copy because the genetics are not the only factor that defines a person (Lester, Lane P. and James C. Hefley. 37-41). Origin of cloning Cloning began way back in the year nineteen eighty-seven February when Ian Wilmot the pioneer of cloning technology successfully cloned a lamb and called it by the name Dolly. Dolly did not live up to his mature age. That is the life expectancy of sheep she died in 2003 after contracting a lung infection (Goodnough D. 17). After six years alive only contrary to the life expectancy of the normal sheep which is eleven years.
After such a slight research the discovers of cloning had a proposition if its possible to explore in the world of cloning the human beings. Types of cloning There are three types of cloning. These are as listed below; a) DNA Cloning These may be also referred to as recombinant DNA technology, Molecular cloning or gene cloning. All the three refer to the same thing. The process involves transferring of the DNA fragment of interest from the original organism also loosely called donor to a self-replicating genetic element. i. e the recipient e. g. bacterial plasmid.
The DNA of interest should be to be propagated in the host cells without any mutations. i. e adverse effects b) Reproductive cloning This is directed to generate of an offspring that has same nucleus as to likeness of an animal already or has previously been in existence. So as to stimulate cell division and multiplication, the DNA removed must be treated with a chemical or electric current (Dudley W. , 77). The embryo that is cloned in incubator is kept until a certain period is attained and then its transferred to uterus of the host who is a female and where it undergoes development stages till it come to the time of birth .
The birth of the offspring takes place in the normal way as if it was naturally conceived. c) Therapeutic cloning This is a process where embryo is produced for research purposes. This is geared towards the harvesting of stem cells that are ultimately used to study human development stages medically to treat diseases. Uses of cloning The major uses of cloning are 1. The cloning can bring joy to sterile couples and that offspring that is brought forth will be having genetic patterns similar to those of any of the source who donated the stem parents (Curan B.
A. , 54). 2. There is also a possibility that through cloning technology damaged cells of as human being can be stimulated to grow into full cells hence replacing the cells i. e. the damaged cells 3. The genetic make-ups can act as organ donors to the donor other since we shall assume that they are almost perfectly compliment to each other. i. e. the donor and the receiver 4. Cloning can be used to repopulate the endogenous species through reproductive cloning. For example the rare cuckoo can be bred faster through cloning. 5.
Cloning can be used to study other related technologies taking example of sequential genomes and gene therapy. The risks that are eminent in the cloning of humans Despite every step made in cloning to make it a success in science world, there are risks that are directly associated with the cloning process these include: 1. Low success rate: Since the inception of animal cloning. All the clones in the animal that have been done since its inception, the success rate has been less than ten percent (10%)while the remaining ninety percent (90%) of the offspring have not be viable (Harris, John.
, 16). 2. There is a Compromise in the immunity systems Most of the offspring’s that are brought forth human through the human cloning technology have immune systems that have shown a very weak tread to resistance of many diseases (Goodnough D. 111). They suffer from a high rate of infection from vermin’s. This mainly comes of the viral attacks e. g. cancer this forces a health risk to the inheritor. Dolly suffered a viral attack before she came to age of maturity. 3. The incomplete Ageing study of offspring’s The clones that have already been developed have shown an early mortality rate.
No clone has lived up to its maturity age as compared to other normal animals that is the life expectancy is usually lower. This brings a scenario where a no study has been done to bring insight of the way clones behave up to their maturity is and ultimate retirement of the clone (National Bioethics Advisory Commission. ). Animal Cloning has been on the following criticism against it Poses a health risk from gene mutations There is a health risk in situations especially where young humans tissues are cloned with the tissues from mature human beings. These may pose a health risk as of the compatibility of the two tissues.
The tissues that are cloned from a mature human may come to age faster than the baby’s tissue mature. This can cause uneven patches of fresh tissues and old tissues (Caplan, Arthur L. 155). Emotional risk A person or offspring produced may lack identity for example if a girl is produced; she does to know if her mother is her mother or a sister and if her Father is a dad or a husband. She is tied between her true status, not a daughter and not a sister neither an auntie. Hence a clone offspring may lack knowledge of his/her true status of relationship position (Green, Ronald M.
40,41). i. Abuse of technology Some leaders may use a technology for their own political and economic and social ambitions. A leader may produce his replica hence two same leaders are available but in reality only one exists. This may take also form of military. Militant’s clones may be produced for stability in countries (Kolata, Gina. 17-23). ii. Second and lower class of humans Since humans are God created through natural way of male and female, other humans may consider the clones as second class or lower class people (Mulkay, Michael.
,104). This causes discrimination of the worst kind. iii. Cluster production Clone production may lead to production of one group of people for instance. soldiers only or social workers only. This can cause loss of manpower in some industries while one industry is over crowded. Religious view of cloning I totally support the religious view that in the beginning God created the world and the human beings and he showed them the way to reproduce and multiply to fill the world (Lester, Lane P. and James C. Hefley. 119).
God in His wisdom chose this as the only way through which the world was to be filled (Turner, Ronald Cole, 63). Interfering with the natural processes and ways has invariably caused various problems in all levels of life. Human activities for instance have dealt a huge blow on the environment that now threatens the very survival of life on earth, shouldn’t this serve as a warning to any human being interested in playing God? Thus the religious organizations’ view that humans should not be cloned but should reproduce in Gods stipulated way has my full support.
Conclusion Human cloning has got more disadvantages than advantages. These include the risks that are involved which are huge and since 90% of the clones done lead to failure, experimenting with human beings can cause untold misery and pain. The immunity level of the offspring is low and as such the clone is susceptible to diseases and ailments. This would be subjecting a human being to much suffering since they would be in and out of health centers throughout their lives. The study done is not adequate since the effects of age on clones are not known.
It is scary to contemplate the effects of cloning a human being when the clone reaches an advanced age if indeed that was possible. Like Dolly the sheep, various complications easily come to mind. The pressure on clones during teenage when they may wish to know their status may lead to undue depression. The question that begs then is; Is cloning worth? It is conceivable that cloning can lead to second or a lower class of human beings and they may be subjected to ridicule by “normal” human beings. In children, this ridicule can cause any number of developmental problems resulting in psychological imbalance in adulthood.
Lastly but not the least, since technology rarely comes cheap, the benefits of cloning technology would largely be experienced by the upper class individuals. Despite the discovery of the good technology of cloning, which I appreciate very much, the creation of human beings should be only left to the process which God initiated and set apart.
Caplan, Arthur L. “Cloning Human Embryos. ” Western Journal of Medicine 176. 2 (2002) Cole-Turner, Ronald, ed. Human Cloning: Religious Responses. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1997. Curan B. A Terrible Beauty is Born: Clones, Genes and the Future of Mankind.
Taylor & Francis, 2003. Dudley W. The Ethics of Human Cloning. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2001. Goodnough D. The Debate over Human Cloning: A Pro/Con Issue. Enslow Publishers, Inc. ,2003. Green, Ronald M. “The Ethical Considerations. ” Scientific American 286. 1 (2002) Harris, John. Clones, Genes, and Immortality: Ethics and the Genetic Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Kass, Leon R. and James Q. Wilson. The Ethics of Human Cloning. Washington: The AEI Press, 1998. Kolata, Gina. Clone: The Road to Dolly, and the Path Ahead. New York: William Morrow, 1998. Lester, Lane P. and James C. Hefley.
Human Cloning: Playing God or Scientific Progress? Grand Rapids, MI: Fleming H. Revell, 1998. Mulkay, Michael. The Embryo Research Debate. New York: Cambride UP, 1997. National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Cloning Human Beings. Vol. I, Report and Recommendations, and Vol. II, Commissioned Papers. Rockville, Maryland: June, 1997. Shannon, Thomas A. “Human Cloning. ” America 186. 5 (2002) Silver, Lee M. Remaking Eden: How Genetic Engineering and Cloning Will Transform the American Family. New York: Avon Books, Inc. , 1998. Turner, Ronald Cole, ed. Beyond Cloning: Religion and the Remaking of Humanity. Trinity Press International, 2001.