Improving ovarian cancer outcomes

Good morning, I wanted to let you know that I am ordering this paper for a friend using my credit card because he does not have a credit card. I hope this won’t a problem. And his instructions are similar to mine, but he’s only requesting that the Internet references be from a medical or college site. A site orders then a newspaper article or a magazine article. Also he prefers that work not be quoted. Thanks. Ovarian cancer is malignant neoplasm that arises from the female reproductive organs that produce the ovum (ovaries). In the world, it is one of the leading causes of death due to cancers in females.

Ovarian cancer is the fifth most frequently occurring cancer. Genetic factors, lifestyle and environmental factors play a role in the development of the disease. Usually, elder women more often develop the disorder compared to younger. Some of the symptoms that develop in the condition include abdominal pain, discomfort or heaviness, vaginal bleeding, abnormal periods, increase in the size of the abdomen, indigestion, bloating, etc. The diagnosis is made based on the history, symptoms, size, physical examination, pelvic examination, blood tests, urine analysis, ultrasound, CT scans, and biopsy.

The condition is treated by a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. However, radiotherapy is rarely utilized to treat cancer of the ovaries in developed nations (Nanda, 2006 & Medline Plus, 2007). The outcome of the condition is usually better if it is diagnosed early and treated promptly. Usually the diagnosis is made in the later stages when the symptoms become persistent. About 3/4th of the women who develop the condition are barely able to survive for more than a year. The oncologists should make an effort to prevent spread of the cancer to outside of the ovary.

If this spread were limited, the five-year survival rate would be more than 94 %. One way of detecting the cancer during the early stages would be to have frequent pelvic examinations. Women who have a greater genetic risk of developing the disorder (such as the presence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene) should preferable remove the ovaries at the age of 50 (Nanda, 2006 & NCI, 2007). One of the important factors that could have a major role on the outcome and the survival rate is the presence of residual disease.

It is considered better to appoint specialists (gynecologic oncologists) to perform such surgeries, as the 5-year survival rate was 44 % compared to 17 % when operated by general surgeons. Studies have shown that when the surgeons were able to detect and treat spread to the adjacent lymph nodes, the outcome was better. Besides, the outcome was also better when the surgeons administered chemotherapy after the surgery, which could help destroy any remaining tumor cells that are present in the body (University of Florida, 2007).

References: Medline Plus (2007), Ovarian Cancer, Retrieved October 4, 2007, from Medline Plus Web site: http://www.nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ovariancancer. html Nanda, R. (2006), Ovarian Cancer, Retrieved October 4, 2007, from Medline Plus Encyclopedia Web site: http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000889. htm National Cancer Institute (2007), Ovarian Cancer.

Prevention, Retrieved October 4, 2007, from NCI Web site: http://www. cancer. gov/cancertopics/pdq/prevention/ovarian/healthprofessional University of Florida – SCC (2007), Improved Outcomes for Ovarian Cancer Treated by Gynecologic Oncologists, Retrieved October 4, 2007, from UFSCC Web site: http://www. ufscc. ufl. edu/Professional/cancernews. aspx? section=cancernews&id=36150.

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