Health, fitness and diet

1. To be healthy you must have no injuries or illnesses and must have a good level of social, mental and physical-well being 2i. Regular exercise can improve your general health by preventing you getting overweight, which can cause illness, and also it can help to relieve stress and built up energy, as this can make you unstable in a mental way. 2ii. The amount of exercise might vary between different people because of the height, weight and samatotype of the person doing the exercise.

Also there is the part of whether people have an illness or injury, are disabled or smoke take drugs and drink alcohol regularly. 3i. Good posture is when your back curves inwards at the bottom holding your chest up but not straining for breath. Also when your chin is parallel with the ground, and your shoulders pulled back and straight. ii. Two examples of poor posture are when slouched forward and shoulders hunched up, or when the persons chin is slightly inclined toward the floor.

iii. Muscle tone is when your muscles contract. It can help with posture by keeping your body muscles working and aligned in the correct way. Fitness 1a. Endurance is how long a person is able to do a physical activity for and the longer they can do it for, the more endurance they have. b. Two different activities or events which require a high level of endurance are a marathon event which needs a lot of endurance to run the long distances that they are. Another is playing a rugby match.

This needs endurance as you are constantly running on the pitch and making contact with opposing team players. c. Two body systems which are improved by endurance training are the muscular system and the nervous system. 2. Four factors of fitness are, speed stamina and suppleness. 3i. when playing rugby, one person passes to another along the line and you sprint forwards with the ball. When a person receives a pass from another player they show explosive strength by sprinting as fast as they can and smashing their way through other players to reach the try line.

j. an example of static strength is when a weightlifter lifts the bar upwards from the shoulder height to fully extended arm above the head. 5. By strength it is meant when a person exerts a force on an object using their muscles. Warm-ups/Warm-downs 1. Two reasons why it is important to warm up before physical activity are because it loosens up the muscles so you don’t strain them to cause injury, and it raises the heart rate slightly and helps the blood flow to the muscles easier.

Two examples of suitable warm-ups are: sideline to sideline jogging whilst changing direction and using suitable methods of stretching, or another example is to be doing dynamic stretching whilst having a large clear space to do it in. 3. you should always complete a warm-down after you have finished a physical activity because it helps the body get back to normal rate and gets rid of any lactic acid build up that you could have. Diet 1. Five of the basic constituents of a healthy diet are: Vitamins, Minerals, Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fats.

2. Dietary needs vary between people taking part in different sports because of the demands of the sport. For example long distance runners and footballers need to eat a lot of carbohydrates as it will help them with their endurance whereas rugby players and weightlifters need to eat lots of protein as it helps build up your muscle power. 3. By a balanced diet it is meant that an even proportion of each type of food is eaten and the body is made healthy by doing this 4. The two groups that make up carbohydrates are Dairy products and Fruit. 5.

The two types of fats are called Saturated and Unsaturated fats. Skeletal System 1i. ball and socket is found in the hip. The bones that form the joint are the femur, the ischium and the pubis. ii. Hinge joint is found in the knee. The bones which form this are the, femur the patella, the tibia and the fibula 2. the main functions of the skeletal system are to support and be a rigid frame for the rest of the body, give shape to our body, protect our delicate organs, make it so that we are able to move and it also makes new blood cells for our body through the bone marrow.

3i. hinge ii. Hinge iii. Ball and socket iv. Pivot v. Condyloid 4. The forms of connective tissue that allow movement are cartilage, ligaments and tendons. 5. the main functions of the spinal column are to keep the body upright and to keep all the bones in the body connected to each other. Also to protect some of the bodies vital organs. Muscular System 1i. The Triceps are found on the back of the upper arm ii. The Gastrocnemius is found on the back of the lower leg (calf). 2. The three different types of muscle are the voluntary, involuntary and cardiac.

An example of each is the biceps, the quadriceps and the heart. 3i. Contraction is when the muscle is being used and it contracts to make the job easier and to exert more power. An example is kicking a football. When you kick the football the hamstring contracts to give more power. ii. Relaxation is when the muscle is not in use and so has lengthened. An example of this is when you kick a football the hamstring contracts but the quadriceps relaxed as it is not being used in that motion.

4. The two functions of the muscular system are to exert power to move objects. 5. The muscles are attached to the bones to enable them to move to extend the power of the muscle to transfer over a greater distance. Respiratory System 1. the stages of inspiration in the breathing cycle is the diaphragm and intercostals muscles contract lifting the ribs upwards and outwards, then the volume of chest cavity is larger, after this the pressure decreases and finally the air is sucked in.

The functions of the respiratory system are to make sure that we are breathing and getting oxygen into our body and helping blood be carried around the body. 4. Strenuous exercise has the effect on your rate of breathing by preventing as much oxygen getting into the lungs and the carbon dioxide level in the blood rises. 5. By the term anaerobic it is meant that energy is produced except that it has no oxygen contained within it. 6. The body works anaerobically during swimming. When someone dives under and is swimming along there is no oxygen entering their body but energy is still there.

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