GCSE Medicine

An outline guide to the teaching and assessing of the Study in Development required for completion of the NEAB GCSE History Syllabus A (Schools History Project). Syllabus Requirements. 7. 2 Study in Development: Medicine Through Time (Assessed in Paper 1) The study in development should enable candidates to gain an overview of the main changes and trends in medicine from earliest limes to the present. The content, defined through the key features of the areas studied over lime, should be approached from the following perspectives:

Key issues people and developments Key features and characteristics of the periods studied Key concepts Content:key features of eras and developments studied Prehistoric times The difficulties faced by historians investigating prehistoric ideas about medicine and illness because of the lack of written evidence; the role of magic as a treatment for illness; The use of evidence provided by the Aboriginal way of life and their approach to the treatment of illness to make suggestions about ideas in prehistoric limes. The Ancient World (i)Ancient Egypt.

The magical and rational aspects of Egyptian medicine; the connection between the Egyptians’ beliefs and way of life and their treatment of illness; The importance of writing in ensuring the continuity and development of medical knowledge in the ancient world; the possible connection between the Egyptian code of hygiene and their religious practices; The influence of Egyptian doctors in the development of medicine in the ancient world. (ii)India and China Knowledge of anatomy and surgical practice in India; Chinese attempts to provide rational explanations for illness, including the idea of ‘balance’ (Yin and Yang).

(iii) Ancient Greece The religious and rational aspects of Greek medicine, including astrology; The influence of Egyptian doctors on Creek medicine; The connection between the beliefs and way of life of the Greek and their attitude to illness and death; The importance of Greek ideas about health in the history of medicine, especially the theory of the Four Humours; The importance of Hippocrates and the beginning of scientific ideas of diagnosis and treatment in the history of medicine.

(iv) Ancient Rome The Roman attitude towards Greek medicine; the Roman attitude towards public health; The detailed planning and organisation which went into providing public health schemes; Possible reasons why the Roman attitude to medicine and public health was different from that of the Greeks; The influence of military considerations on Roman ideas about public health; The importance of Claudius Galen, especially his beliefs about anatomy, in the history of medicine. Medieval times.

The nature and importance of Islamic medicine, including the work of Rhazes and Ibn Sina (Avicenna); The influence of Christianity on ideas about the causes and the treatment of illness; The continuity of the influence of superstition and astrology on beliefs about the cause and cure of illness; The medical ideas and treatments of medieval physicians and surgeons, including Hugh and Theodoric of Lucca; The reasons why there were comparatively few changes in medicine in medieval times; the extent to which and reasons why standards of public health and hygiene deteriorated in medieval times including the development of group hygiene in monasteries, poor standards of health and hygiene in towns and the Black Death. The Medical Renaissance (c1500AD- 1800AD) .

The role of the Renaissance in art and literature and the development of printing in stimulating changes in medicine in the 15th and 16th centuries; the influence of Galen on the medical renaissance; the importance of Andreas Vesalius, Ambroise Pare and William Harvey in the history of medicine; The importance of the Italian Wars in stimulating changes in surgery; improved methods of dealing with epidemics of the plague; the continuing importance of the theory of the Four Humours, herbal remedies and bleeding in the treatment of illness. Era/ development.

The 19th and 20th centuries i)The cause and cure of illness Key features The role and importance of the following in the development of the understanding and treatment of illness: ?individuals such as Pasteur, Koch, Ehrljch and Fleming; ?teams of research workers; ?improved microscopes; ?War e. g. the Franco Prussian War, the First World War, and the Second World War; ? the development of the chemical industry; ?the development of the science of biochemistry; ?improved communications, e. g. railways and telegraph; ?the development of a nursing profession; ?alternative medicine and the continuing importance of herbal treatments. ii) The revolution in surgery.

The problems which faced surgeons in 1800 (pain, bleeding, infection) and the changes in surgery and medicine which helped to overcome them; the importance of the work of individuals such as Sir James Simpson, Joseph Lister and Robert Koch; the technological, scientific and medical knowledge which made possible the development of antiseptics, anaesthetics, blood transfusion and abdominal surgery; the reasons why some doctors m the 19th century were opposed to the introduction of anaesthetics; the reasons why some doctors and nurses in the 19th century were opposed to antiseptic surgery; the role of the two world wars in stimulating changes in surgery, including the work of Sir Archibald Maclndoe; the importance of recent developments such as transplant surgery.

iii) The development of public health Problems connected with housing, water supply and drainage in early 19th century towns; the causes and effects of cholera;

the role of cholera epidemics in stimulating changes in public health; the reasons why few improvements were made in public health in towns despite the legislation of 1842 and 1848; the role played by new discoveries about the cause and spread of disease in bringing about changes in public health; the role of individuals, including Edward Jenner, Edward Chadwick and Jonas Salk; the role of government intervention in bringing about changes in public and personal health in the 19th and 20th centuries, including the development of vaccination and mass inoculation; the role played by international organisations such as the WHO in combating and preventing disease. Overview: key issues, people, ideas and developments.

Candidates should be able to relate relevant people, ideas and developments, as detailed in the list of content to the key issues in the development of medicine over time. Key issues People, ideas and developments Progress in the understanding of the cause and cure of illness Ideas of cause and cure of illness, from the supernatural to the natural to the scientific. The work of individuals including Rhazes, Hippocrates, Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, Paul Ehrlich, Alexander Fleming. Developments in anatomy and surgery. Knowledge of anatomy and surgical techniques from prehistoric to modern times. The work of individuals including Claudius Galen, Andreas.

Vesalius, Ambroise Pare, William Harvey, Sir James Simpson, Joseph Lister, Sir Archbald Maclndoe, Christian Barnard. Continuity and change in preventative medicine. Preventative measures, from individual and group hygiene to national and international public health initiatives. The work of individuals including Edward Jenner, Edwin Chadwick, Jonas Salk The development of a medical profession. The development of a separate profession, from medicine men through barber-surgeons to the highly qualified doctors, nurses and technicians of today. The work of individuals including Hippocrates, Claudius Galen, Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Andreas Vesalins, Florence Nightingale, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson. .

Overview: key features and characteristics of the periods studied. Candidates should have some understanding of how the following key features in the history of medicine are linked with important changes in society which were instrumental in enabling developments in medicine. Key features in medical development The establishment of a separate medical profession using a written body of knowledge. The firm establishment of theories of the natural cause of illness: the theory of the four humours. Scientific medical investigation leading to: exact anatomical knowledge; the theory of the circulation of the blood; the germ theory of disease. The development of technically complex drugs and surgical methods.

Greatly increased involvement of the state with health. Changes in society The emergence of organised and literate societies in ancient times. The Greek idea that logical and rational knowledge of nature was possible. The development of exact and experimental science from the 17th century onwards. The development of technological research and knowledge in the 19th and 20th centuries. The gaining of political rights by all classes of people in many countries throughout the world in the 20th century.

Key Concepts Change Candidates should have some understanding of: ? the varying pace of change including some periods of stagnation; ? the ways in which change may not lead to progress for all people;? the ways in which some aspects of change lead to progress whilst others do not; how change may lead to apparent progress in the short term but not in the long term.

Continuity Candidates should show an appreciation that: ? old ideas and technologies continue to be used in some areas long after they have been superseded in others; ? old and new ideas and techniques often continue side by side in the same place. Causation and consequence Candidates should be able to show some understanding of the causes and consequences of change, including: the role played by factors which have encouraged or inhibited change at different limes, e. g. superstition, religion, science, warfare, industry, technology, chance; the role of organised groups in causing or preventing change, e. g.

Governments; professional opposition to antisepsis; political and social groups pressing for a National Health Service; the links between factors which brought about particular developments at particular limes, e. g. the germ theory of disease, the development of penicillin; The ability to distinguish between long and short term causes, and to understand that some factors were more important than others in a given context; the ability to distinguish between immediate and long term consequences, and to understand that some consequences were unexpected or unintended. Note: technical knowledge Candidates will not normally be required to explain technological or scientific principles.

They will be given credit for such explanation only where it is relevant to the historical problem posed in the question. The teaching of this course will take into account the requirements of the Certificate of Achievement where appropriate. There is also scope to integrate the NEAB’s Unit award scheme into the department at a later date: NEAB Unit Award Scheme:

Medicine through Time Unit 1: History of Medicine: Medicine in Ancient Times NEAB Unit Award Scheme code no: 22800 Unit 2: History of Medicine: The Middle Ages to circa 1700 NEAB Unit Award Scheme code no 22801 Unit 3: History of Medicine: from 1800 to the present day NEAB Unit Award Scheme code no; 22802.

Unit 4: History of Medicine: Surgery NEAB Unit Award Scheme code no 22803 Unit 5: History of Medicine: Disease NEAB Unit Award Scheme code no 22804 Unit 6: History of Medicine: Public Health NEAB Unit Award Scheme code no 22805 Teaching Guide. Total Time Allotted: 28 weeks (Two Terms) These tasks act as a CORE of the learning activities. They SHOULD be supplemented with use of Video, CD ROM and other resources regularly and group/ paired activities can be utilised effectively in place of a number of these learning activities. Provide each student with a Glossary booklet. They should add to this as and when appropriate. (At LEAST once per unit).

Provide each student with a Timeline of the full era with major events already printed on it. They should add medical developments to the timeline as and when they learn them. *This can be done as part of the revision process Unit 1: Prehistoric Medicine Differentiation within Unit 1: Prehistoric Medicine is primarily through outcome. Homework set during lesson 3 will be differentiated for Gifted and Talented, Core, Foundation and Certificate of Achievement students. Time allowed: One Week. Learning outcomes: In successfully completing this unit students will have demonstrated the ability to Use a variety of sources to acquire knowledge of disease and treatment methods in prehistoric times.

Completed a chart explaining prehistoric beliefs about the cause of disease. Teaching method Lesson One Use chapter one of the class textbook, ‘Medicine through Time’, Rees and Shuter, to develop an understanding of what the term ‘prehistoric’ means. Ask students how people in prehistoric times would have passed on information about effective cures for disease: they could not write, therefore it had to be word of mouth. No recording system, thus practise remains primitive. Students should answer the following questions to provide them with a background understanding: What does ‘Prehistoric’ mean? How do we know what types of disease existed during Prehistoric times?

What type of evidence can we use to identify things that happened in prehistoric times? Lesson Two Inform the students that many skulls have been uncovered dating back to prehistoric times. Many of these skulls have holes drilled into them. Ask why? Make a note of the suggestions made by students, they could provide an insight later into the reasons for historical variations relating to Trephining. Would the drilling of holes in the head be fatal? Ask for suggestions and remind students that there were no hospitals, anaesthetics or sterile conditions around in prehistoric times. Nor were there specialist tools to perform surgery with. Provide Evidence: Bone grows.

It can be clearly seen on many of the skulls recovered that there has been substantial growth around the holes. This means that people lived for quite some time after Trephining. What does this tell us about people in Prehistoric times? Demonstrate roughly what would have happened during Trephining. Students complete tasks, Unit 1. 3. Lesson Three Read through the information relating to Aboriginal beliefs. Explain that the Aboriginal lifestyle is as close to that in prehistoric times as we can get. Discuss the beliefs of aborigine’s relating to a variety of illnesses. Answer Question 4 from Unit 1. 4. Homework: students are to complete the chart on Medicine in Prehistoric times. This chart has been amended for different ability groupings within the teaching group.

Double check completion of glossary and timeline for all students during this lesson. Unit 2: Egyptian Medicine Time allowed: Three weeks Learning Outcomes Students will understand the Egyptians understanding of medicine They will recognise that medical practices were advanced by the Egyptians. They will know that Public Health is a major issue in preventative medicine. Week One, Lesson 1 Identify on a timeline when ancient Egypt happened. Read through Unit 2. 1, ‘Ancient Egypt’, and ask students what the basic beliefs of the Ancient Egyptians were. Then investigate how modern historians know about practises in Ancient Egypt (Unit 2.2).

How does these sources of evidence differ from those available for prehistoric medical practices? Complete tasks in textbook. Week 1, Lessons 2&3 Begin by providing background information for students (Unit 2. 3). Provide students with definitions of key phrases and words. These should be added to the student’s glossary of phrases. Look in detail at the types of source material relating to medicine in Ancient Egypt. Read through each of the sources in the textbook. Which of these refer to knowledge of the human body and which are related to spiritual beliefs? Complete source based tasks on worksheet ‘Religion and anatomy in Ancient Egypt’.

This worksheet is differentiated to three levels, Gifted and Talented, Core and Foundation. Week 2, Lesson 1. Read through Unit 2. 4 of the class textbook then analyse the following questions. Provide writing frame for Certificate of Achievement students. What advances did the ancient Egyptians make in the study and understanding of Disease? How did the Egyptians make these discoveries? What evidence is there that the Ancient Egyptians made medical advances? Week 2 Lessons 2&3. Discuss and define the terms Surgery. Add this to the student’s glossary. Read through Unit 2. 5 of the textbook. Evaluate the extent to which the Ancient Egyptians used surgery and how advanced their understanding of surgery was.

What evidence is there that the Egyptians understood how to treat a variety of illnesses? (The papyrus Edwin Smith and Papyrus Ebers provide written evidence). Make notes on the board for students to use later in lesson. Then read through Unit 2. 6. ‘Egyptian Public Health’. Discuss the way in which Egyptians prevented disease. Did they understand the causes of disease? Complete the tasks at the end of Unit 2. 6. Provide Gifted and Talented students with additional material to use. Ask them to make reference specifically to previous medical knowledge and encourage them to debate whether or not the Egyptians had ‘learnt’ these medical facts. Lower attainers will require assistance with this task.

Provide them with prompt sheets to guide them to the evidence. Week 3 Lesson 1 Provide all students with a time line for Public Health and Surgery. These timelines should then have information relating to Ancient Egyptian understanding/ development of Surgery and Public Health added to them. Work through exactly what is required on each timeline and explain that they will become useful revision tools later in the course. Store these timelines separately. They will be added to throughout the study of Medicine through Time. Can be used during revision process instead. Homework: Complete chart from Unit 2. 7. Study sources and answer questions (Exercise 2. 7).

Differentiated to three levels. Additional/ Alternative Resources: Revise for History GCSE. http://www. schoolshistory. org. uk/medicine. htm (revision quiz in Egypt section to be completed by all students during period AFTER this section has been taught). Unit 3: Medicine in Ancient Greece Time allowed: Three weeks Learning Outcomes Students will know who Hippocrates was and what work he conducted. They will know how the Greeks advanced the ideas of the Egyptians and recognise that there were several reasons for the changes that occurred. Students will understand the cult of Asclepios and the advancements made through its emergence. Week 1 Lesson 1.

Introduce Ancient Greece and provide an overview of the developments in medical knowledge (Unit 4. 1) Complete tasks from textbook. For lower attainers break this down into a series of more accessible questions. Week 1 Lessons 2&3 Introduce the Cult of Asclepios. Discuss with students whether or not the medical practices of the cult were based on knowledge or belief. If the students agree that they are based on belief then question how the cult remained so successful for so long. Students should plan and write an essay entitled: ‘Asclepions were both popular and successful. ’ What evidence can you find to support this statement? A planning grid and writing frame should be provided for all students here.

Additional source material can be provided for most able students. Empathy task available: Stored in the filing cabinet. Week 2, Lesson 1 Read through Unit 4. 3 Hippocrates. Complete tasks on differentiated worksheet, ‘Hippocrates’. Homework: create a biography of Hippocrates Week 2, Lessons 2&3 Add the developments made by Hippocrates and the work conducted by the Asclepion cult to the timeline on Disease and Public health. This will require guidance on construction and content. Homework: What medical developments were made by Hippocrates and the Asclepions? Provide writing frame for lower attainers. Week 3, Lesson 1 Alexandria –a great medical centre.

Read through unit 4. 5, discuss and answer the questions in the textbook. Week 3, Lesson 2 Greek Public health and exercise. Read through and discuss the ideas of the ancient Greeks. Add these to the timeline of Public Health started by each student. Guidance on what to write down will be required. Week 3, Lesson 3. Complete exercises in Unit 4. 8. Homework: complete the chart on Ancient Greek medicine using notes and book. Double check completion of glossary and timeline for all students during this lesson. Unit 4: Roman Medicine Time allowed: Three weeks Learning Outcomes Students will recognise that the Romans made several advances in medical Knowledge.

They will be able to explain the reasons for and benefits of the Public Health provision of the Romans. They will see that things have changed over time and be able to offer reasons for these changes. Week 1, Lesson 1 Read through Unit 5. 1 ‘Roman Medicine’ Discuss the benefits that the Romans may have gained from the work conducted in Medicine by the Egyptians and the Greeks. Look at Unit 5. 2, Medicine in Early Rome. Analyse the source material available. Where did the Romans acquire much of their medical knowledge? Answer the questions in Unit 5. 2. Week 1, Lessons 2&3 Look at sources C-H in Unit 5. 3. How did each of these things improve the standard of Public Health in Roman times?

Are these advances on previous techniques or continuations of methods employed by the Greeks? Complete worksheet ‘Public Health in Roman Times’ Homework: Students to add details of Public Health in Roman Times to their timeline of Public Health. Week 2, Lesson 1 Read through Source J in unit 5. 4. Establish if the source is Primary or secondary evidence, how useful is it? Is it reliable? What does it tell us? All students: What does Source J tell us about the Romans understanding of medicine? Plan the response with the class. Week 2, Lessons 2&3 Read through the unit on Galen (Unit 5. 5). Discuss the impact that he had on medical ideas. Complete the tasks in Unit 5. 5. This work should be completed as Homework.

Certificate students will require writing frame for this task. Homework: Create biography of Galen. Week 3, Lesson 1 Work through the following question. Exam Type question: ‘The Romans just copied the Greek ideas about the cause and cure of disease. Do you agree? Use Sources A and B and your knowledge in your answer. (8 marks) Source A: When all these humours are truly balanced a person feels the most perfect health. Illness happens when there is too much or too little or it is entirely thrown out of the body. From the writings of Hippocrates. Source B: Give them food which reduces heat, like soup of yellow lentils and minced meat. Their drink should be cooled with Ice.

A treatment based on the work of Roman doctors. Homework: Complete chart from Chapter 5. Read through Chapter 6: ‘The fall of the Roman Empire in the west. ’ Complete the tasks. Double check completion of glossary and timeline for all students during this lesson. Unit 5: Oriental Medicine Time allowed: Two Weeks Learning Outcomes Students will understand that different cultures have different sets of beliefs. Students will recognise and be able to explain continuations, developments and changes in medicine. Students will be able to distinguish between Islamic and Chinese medicines. Students will be able to place the period into the correct chronological framework. .

Week 1, Lesson 1 Introduce the students to oriental medicine: ensure that they understand the term Oriental and identify the area on a map. Put the time into context. Add the period to the classes timeline. Read through Unit 7. 1 and answer the questions. Ask students to read Unit 7. 2 and make brief notes at home. Week 1, Lessons 2&3 Answer the questions underneath these two sources: A: Parts of the Islamic holy book, the ‘Hadith’ The Holy Prophet (peace be on him) said: Cleanliness is half of Faith. Keep your houses and yards tidy. God does not like dirt and cleanses the mouth not trim his nails and untidiness. Brushing the teeth and pleases God.

He who does his moustache is not one of us. He who goes to sleep while his hands smell of food has only himself to blame if harm comes to him. Every Muslim must have a bath once a week, when he must wash his head and the whole of his body. Do not put up a sick man and a healthy one together. If you hear of the plague keep away from it. If the plague breaks out in the area where you are, do not leave. B: from ‘The Cultural side of Islam’ by Muhammad Pickthall The Muslims set out on their search for learning in the name of God at a time when Christians were destroying all the learning of the ancients in the name Christ. The Christians had destroyed the library at Alexandra.

Learning for them was only for the devil and unbelievers. The priests publicly burnt the books of Greeks and Romans. However, the educated men of Islam set to work on translation of the ancient books. So the Muslims saved the ancient learning from destruction and passed its treasures down to modern times. The Greek contribution to medicine would have been lost without efforts of the Muslims. Questions: 1) What did the prophet say about the Plague and why was this good advice? 2) Why do you think that Arab hospitals were so clean? Quote evidence from Source A to help you answer the question. 3) Read through the two sources and the information in Unit 7. 3/ 7.

4 and find examples of how the Islamic religion helped and hindered medicine. 4) Look again at the map of the Islamic Empire. Do you think that having such a large empire would help or hinder medical development? Give reasons for your answer. Week 2, Lesson 1 Read through and complete the tasks in Unit 7. 5/ 7. 6 Homework: complete the tasks. Week 2, Lessons 2&3 Chart on Oriental medicine: ensure that students include the way in which Oriental medicine utilised the ideas and knowledge of the Greeks and Romans on their chart. Double check completion of glossary and timeline for all students during this lesson. Unit 6: Medicine in the Middle Ages Time allowed: Three weeks.

This unit covers elements of: Key Issue 1 (Progress in the understanding of the cause and cure of illness), 2 (developments in anatomy and surgery) and contributes to NEAB Unit Award Scheme. Learning Outcomes Students will understand that regression as well as progression is possible. Students will be able to use data to substantiate responses. Students will recognise and be able to explain continuations, developments and changes in medicine. Students will be able to place the period into the correct chronological framework. Students will learn the role of religion in Medieval medicine and be able to make interpretations as to whether it helped or hindered medical development. Week 1, Lesson 1.

Explain the role of the church in medieval society and ask how this could influence the beliefs of people relating to Medicine. Use sources A-C from Chapter 8 (Units 8. 1 and 8. 2) to form the basis of an investigation into the beliefs of people in the Middle Ages. What were the complaints and how were they treated? Were these ideas new or old ideas on the cause and cures of disease? Complete tasks in Unit 8. 2. Homework: Complete notes on Growing Professionalism and Ordinary people (Units 8. 3 and 8. 4) Week 1, Lessons 2&3 Surgery and anatomy in Medieval Times (Unit 8. 5). Read through Unit 8. 5. Discuss the problems with this method of dispensing medical knowledge. Complete tasks in book. Week 2, Lesson 1.

Public Health in the Middle Ages. Watch Black Adder: episode where he’s selling his house, need the section where they talk about toilets and Blackadder claims to have the best in modern latrines, ‘Crap out of the window. ’ Look at Source L (Unit 8. 6). How realistic was the Blackadder sketch? What problems were relating to public Health in the Middle Ages and what caused them to continue? Homework: tasks relating to Source M, the unhealthy streets, Monasteries and Hospitals of the time. Week 2, Lessons 2&3 The Black Death. Develop group based activity on the spread of the Black Death and the reaction to it. Video on the black death if available. Week 3, Lesson 1.

Complete tasks on the Black Death from Unit 8. 7. Finish as homework. Week 3, Lessons 2&3 Assessment based on the tasks at the end of Unit 8. 7 and the exercises in Unit 8. 8. Homework. Complete chart on Medieval Medicine. Double check completion of glossary and timeline for all students during this lesson. Unit 7: Medicine in Early Modern Europe Time allowed: Three weeks This unit covers elements of: Key Issue 1 (Progress in the understanding of the cause and cure of illness), 2 (developments in anatomy and surgery) and contributes to NEAB Unit Award Scheme. Learning Outcomes Students will understand that different cultures have different sets of beliefs.

Students will recognise and be able to explain continuations, developments and changes in medicine. Students will be able to place the period into the correct chronological framework. Students will be able to explain why Galen’s work was still so relevant and make assertions as to the significance of Islamic medicine on modern European practices. Week 1, Lesson 1 Provide students with a timeline of the Early Modern period. Students should add to this as they work through the Unit. Read through Section 9. 1. Discuss and answer the questions. Week 1, Lessons 2&3 Look at source material relating to Galen’s work. How does this compare with medical theories previously taught? Which of his ideas are new and which are ‘borrowed’.

What changes in society helped Galen and other medical practitioners conduct their research and medical practises? Homework: Complete the tasks in Unit 9. 2. Week 2, Lesson 1 Resources: Text Book, String/ rope, knife. Use Source L as the basis for a demonstration of how an amputation may have occurred. Discuss the methods used by Pare. What enabled him to make improvements to Medical knowledge? Week 2, Lessons 2&3 Work through the questions on Pare in unit 9. 3. Provide a writing frame for Question 1e and 2a. Discuss the possible answers to question 4 in detail. Students to finish work at home and make notes on William Harvey in preparation for the following lesson. Week 3, Lesson 1.

Work through the answers to the tasks in Unit 9. 4. These tasks should be completed as homework. Week 3, Lessons 2&3 Assessment: Based on the source material in Unit 9. 5 Homework: Complete chart from Unit 9. 6. Students should make notes on Unit 10. Double check completion of glossary and timeline for all students during this lesson. Unit 8: Infectious Disease Time allowed: Three weeks This unit covers elements of: Key Issue 1 (Progress in the understanding of the cause and cure of illness), 2 (developments in anatomy and surgery) and contributes to NEAB Unit Award Scheme. Learning Outcomes Students will recognise and be able to explain continuations, developments and changes in medicine.

Students will be able to place the period into the correct chronological framework. Student will be able to explain how Jenner made his discoveries. Students will be able to describe the significance of Jenners work. Students will be able to define key words and use them with good effect in answers. Week 1, Lesson 1 Read through Sources B-G, Unit 11. 1 Answer questions from text book.


Biography of Edward Jenner. Week 1, Lessons 2&3 Read through pages 82-87. Add each new word to the students glossary. Complete tasks at end of unit. (These can easily be broken down into sections to address at various stages of the lesson). Homework: Complete the tasks and create biographies of Pasteur and Koch. Week 2, Le.

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