Fitness principles

To plan and structure a suitable training programme for a sport of my choice, taking into account the aspects and components of fitness principles I intend improve. We have to take into account its relevance to the activity, as well as the ability to select exercises that will aim to do this. This is the capacity to carry out everyday activities without excessive fatigue and with enough energy in reserve for emergencies. It is also the capacity of the heart, blood vessels, lungs and muscles to function at optimal capacity.

Fitness can be split into 2 categories: 1. Physical fitness 2. Mental fitness Physical fitness is the capacity of the individual to meet the varied physical or physiological demands made by a sporting activity, without reducing them to a physically fatigued state. Physical fitness can be split into five components: 1. Strength: The greatest amount of force that muscles can produce in a single maximum effort.

2. Endurance: (staying power) The capacity to sustain movement or effort over a period of time. 3. Speed: The maximum rate of which a person is able to move his/her body over a specific distance. It is measured as the time taken to complete a particular task. 4. Body composition: The concept describing the relative percentage of muscle, fat and bone on our bodies. Body composition analysis is a suitable tool for the assessment of a person’s state of fitness.

5. Flexibility: The range of movement possible at a joint or the ability to stretch a muscle or ligament so the joint moves freely. Motor fitness is the ability of a person to perform successfully at a particular game or activity. Motor fitness can be split into six components: 1. Speed: Ability to move all or part of our bodies as quickly as possible. 2. Power: Ability to contract muscles with speed and force on one explosive act.

3. Agility: Ability to change the direction of our bodies at speed. 4. Co-ordination: Ability to perform complex movements with ease. 5. Reaction time: Ability to react to a stimulus quickly. 6. Balance: Ability to retain balance when stationary or moving. Specificity My training programme is for football. The exercises are specifically suited to what is needed to play football. The training programme is specified for an outfield player, as there are no goalkeeping skills involved in this circuit.

This is the regular physical exercise aimed at specific areas for improvement. As there is so much specificity to areas, there are many different types of training programmes.Specificity- we must train for our own particular sport, and on specific areas of our body in relation to our sport. We need to use a training programme that puts regular stress on the muscle groups we are concerned with.

Progression- we must increase our training gradually; increase the amount of exercise of exercise we do. This places added stress on our body systems. We must add this stress in a progressive or gradual way. Overload- we must work harder than usual to improve the fitness of our various body systems. In order to do this, we must overload or stress them. Our bodies will gradually adapt to cope with this extra work and we will become fitter.

Reversibility- we will lose fitness when inactive. Our bodies are able to adapt to more stress by becoming fitter. Consequently, our bodies will adapt to less stress/ it only takes 3-4 weeks for our bodies to get out of condition. We can lose our aerobic fitness more easily than anaerobic as the muscles quickly lose much of their ability to use oxygen. Tedium- we must make our training programmes interesting. Tedium should be avoided by using a variety of enthusiasm. We can also avoid exercise injuries by varying the way we perform certain activities.

What is a training programme? Olympic sports people often have their own personal training programmes planned out in advance with sessions set out either daily, weekly or monthly and sometimes even yearly basis. The different parts that divide the training programme are called periodisation. These training programmes are designed so that they perform at their best during the times of major competitions. If we are to take part in competitive sport on a regular basis then we should also plan prior to the competition.

When planning a training programme, we need to think about frequency, intensity, time and type. These are called the F.I.T.T principles: Frequency- this is training frequently. We should train at least 3 times a week. Our bodies will need time to recover between sessions, so we should space them out over the week. Intensity- this is to work harder. We will not improve our fitness unless we work hard enough to make our body systems adapt. Time- if we wish to improve our aerobic fitness, we must make our training sessions longer, gradually over time. We should also increase the heart rate level at which we work. Type- We should develop the right fitness and skills for our sport.

Specificity- we must train for our own particular sport, and on specific areas of our body in relation to our sport. We need to use a training programme that puts regular stress on the muscle groups we are concerned with. …

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Training is undertaken by some individuals to improve performance through skill development, and/or physical fitness. Other individuals take part in training as an activity in itself, often within a health-related fitness programme. Training must be seen as a long-term commitment. The …

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