Introduction define hcg cancer vaccine general use what will be disucsed in the essay •Subtitle one talk about trials explain trail and results advantages and disadvantages of hcg base vaccine •Subtitle two two other vaccines with adv disadv •Subtitle three ethical issues •Conclusions my opinion •References; This essay will discuss the statement ‘current advances in hCG-based anti-cancer vaccine development’. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a placental glycoprotein hormone. This hormone is produced during pregnancy by the developing placenta after conception.
It is later developed by the placental component syncytiotrophoblast. This hormone promotes the synthesis of progesterone. Progesterone is a steroid hormone; this hormone is part of the female menstrual cycle, also involved in pregnancy and embryogenesis. Cancerous tumours have been seen to produce this hormone; thus when there are elevated levels of this hormone and the patient is not pregnant, this would lead to a diagnosis of cancer. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether the elevated levels of hCG is a contributing cause of tumourigenesis or an effect of tumourigenesis.
The function of hCG is to maintain the corpus luteum, this is a temporary endocrine structure in females. This is associated with the production of rather high levels of progesterone, moderate levels of estradiol and inhibin A. If a female is not pregnant, the corpus luteum will degenerate within two weeks after its formation. This hormone also strongly stimulates steroid secretion by the corpus luteum in the beginning stages of gestation.
A vaccination is the stimulation of a person’s immune system by administrating antigenic material; this is done to create an adaptive immunity to a pathogen. A cancer vaccination is a vaccination that treats existing cancer or prevents the development of cancer in particular higher risk patients. Treating existing cancer with vaccines are called therapeutic cancer vaccines. However there is currently no vaccination for the prevention of cancer in general. Anti-hCG antibodies would inhibit implantation of fertilised ovum; There are many trials that have been conducted over the years, in order to find a vaccination for cancer.
The following is a trial conducted in 2003 regarding anti-hCG vaccines. It is believed that anti- hCG vaccines are crucial as it is related to cancer bacteria. Molecular Cellular Endicrinology (2007) states in the anti-hCG clinical trial, that phase one involved AVICINE, which is the major form of an anti-hCG vaccine. Celldex scientists concluded that the percentage of hCG was remarkably at its highest in patients who suffered from pancreatic and breast cancer.
They established this through research, disease stabilisation and the limited side effects. hCG can act as an immunosuppressant, metastasis inducer, and an angiogenic factor. However one major drawback would be the commercial availability of the vaccine since the company CG therapeutics is struggling to raise capital in order to distribute them. A scientist from this company, who was involved with the drug biopharma giant Immunex and the leader of the company, Hopp, believes this will be successful in treating tumours.
The trail showed an association between the growth hormone of pregnancy HCG, and cancer. It also showed that there is a link between cancers associated bacteria and hCG. In conclusion it is believed all three parts of this cancer trinity are interrelated.
The fusion protein (B11-hCGbeta) was assessed for its capability to produce tumour antigen-specific cellular immune responses in a human in vitro model. In this experiment monocyte-derived human DCs from normal patients were reacted with purified B11-hCGbeta, it was also activated with CD40 ligand, and also mixed with autologous lymphocytes. It was then evaluated for their ability to produce hCGbeta-specific proliferative and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses.
The results from this experiment showed that B11-hCGbeta was soluble, very distinct, and a purified product that precisely recognises the human receptor along the B11 antibody part of the fusion protein. B11-hCGbeta functionally encouraged the process of tumour antigen by DCs, which caused the production of tumour-specific HLA class I and class II-restricted T-cell responses, this also included CTLs, which are capable of degenerating human cancer cell lines expressing hCGbeta.
Overall, even though other hCG vaccines have been proven to show the ability to elicite antibody responses to hCGbeta, this is the first experiment to show that cellular immune responses to hCGbeta have been initiated via a vaccine (in a human system). So in conclusion this DC-targeted hCGbeta vaccine has given hope for various cancers and gives room for further developed clinical experiments to be carried out.
Subtitle 2 Two vaccines and advantages and disadvantages Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology (2007) states Moleuclar cellular endocrinology (2007). , ‘ Anti- hCG Trials’ available at: http://www. cancerbacteria. com/trial. html, accessed on 23. 12. 12 Clinical Cancer Research, (2004). , ‘A novel human cancer vaccine elicits cellular responses to the tumor-associated antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin beta’ available at: http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/m/pubmed/15041707/ accessed on 21. 12. 12.