Breast Cancer

Morals and ethics refer to a series of rules provided by their principles regarding right and wrong. These morals are controversial when referred to information that includes the genetic makeup of people. When it affects more than one person, it is debated upon whether it is up to one person to control this information. In the source provided, a woman has been found to have breast cancer through a defect in her gene but has chosen to keep this unknown to her immediate family. This is an example of a person withholding genetic information that technically does not belong to any one person.

It is also to the power of the doctor on hand, to morally and ethically assess the situation as well as abide by the law and act upon their concluding judgement. Breast cancer is a multifactorial, malignant tumor that initiates in the cell tissue of the breast. A tumor also known, as neoplasm is the unusual, indefinite and rapid growth of tissue in comparison to regular cells, malignant meaning progressively becoming worse in state. Breast cancer occurs in both men and women, although in males it is rare. Breast cancer is usually found as hard, irregular lumps, swelling, dimpling, discharge or pain.

The woman’s breast contains glands that create breast milk during and after pregnancy called lobules, tiny tubes called ducts that transport the milk from the lobules to the nipple. One type of cancer occurs within the lining cells of the lobules and ducts in which if the malignant tumorous cells are confined and remain within its origin then it is labelled as non-invasive meaning not tending to spread around unlike invasive meaning spreading. The mutation of the gene BrCa1 can lead to breast cancer. The gene BrCa1 produces proteins that suppress tumors and repair damaged DNA.

The gene is located on the longer arm on chromosome seventeen, spanning around 100 kilobases and containing codes for a protein containing thousands of amino acids. If this gene is mutated or altered the damaged DNA could not be repaired, therefore the cells will multiply and can possibly lead to cancer. Breast cancer is a complex, multifactorial disease. Multifactorial meaning there is a combination between genetic and environmental factors. The risk of breast cancer is high for women who have family history of mutated genes, exposure to radiation, delayed childbirth, and environmental factors such as pollution and lifestyle factors such as obesity.

Though the risks, testing is available for women who inherited mutations of the BrCa1 gene. Genetic testing is a type of surveillance option that identifies any mutations in the chromosomes within the body. The results of the test can help identify and confirm if a person has a genetic condition and if they can be treated and cured. Due to testing, many women can be diagnosed within an earlier stage and allow for better treatment options. Treatments to breast cancer are varied and are dependent on the individual.

The nature of the treatment will be altered depending on what type of breast cancer it is and the stage you are at when diagnosed. There are six types of treatments; surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy and the biopsy (removal) of the sentinel lymph nodes. All these treatments have side effects and may have to be repeated to gain the desired result. Privacy involves the rights of a person to control their own personal information and how its used. Genetic information has characteristics that are not similar to other information. Each

person’s genetics is unique but also can reveal implications for both generations that precede and succeed. Though implications can be impromptu, sometimes these implications may extend further outside of extended family. Genetic information considers that fact that the information has an implication on his or her genetic relatives, therefore this information belongs to the family rather than the individual. Many laws stand in the way of a doctor breaking their protocol and informing against consent. There are many obligations as well as laws that require doctors not to disclose personal information of a patient.

The concept of “confidentiality” is the importance that medical practitioners, researchers, hospitals and doctors place upon the privacy given to patients. The concept “Duty To Warn” describes how a doctor is responsible for warning the patient about risks as a consequence of a treatment so they can make informed decisions. If “Jane” a woman who has found to have the altered BrCa1 gene, she could do two things in her scenario. Initially, she does not have to share this information with her immediate family. This may affect the children in such a way that it prolongs the harmful period that they are unaware of their altered gene.

A benefit would be the fact that Jane’s family would be ignorant and remain unphased by stress. Jane can choose to share the information with her family. This may result in immediate testing done by her children to test if they have the same altered gene. This can then result in the findings of altered genes that can be treated easier due to early detection or no findings of mutations at all. Both of these conclusions are beneficial. A negative in this circumstance would be the stress placed upon them while the outcome can be positive. In a circumstance where Jane’s doctor breaks confidentiality, the benefit is that the children will become aware and take the testing.

A harm is that Jane may be upset and take legal action against the doctor for breaching patient confidentiality. It may harm his/her career and put him/her in trouble against the law. In conclusion, in the scenario, it is heavily based upon controversial opinions whether or not to alert the immediate family of Jane’s carrier status. It is deemed by the impact of genetic information that the doctor should tell family yet the importance of doctor patient confidentiality, in the end, should always be upheld, especially in the eyes of the law. Words: 996.

Director of molecular diagnostics, Tianjin Cancer Hospital Center in JinPu said, genetic testing is through the blood, other body fluids or tumor tissue for gene sequences were detected and analyzed. Currently, breast cancer topped the incidence of female cancer, and …

Purpose Statement: This speech has a primary goal of educating the audience and to give a better understanding of what breast cancer is and how it can be treated with detection by a vast variety of methods. It will also …

Intro Attention Getter: Did you know both men and women are able to get breast cancer? Thesis Statement: According to US Breast Cancer Statistics it states that in 2013 there were more than 2. 8 million women with history of …

Cancer is very common among people of all ages. There are many different types of cancer and certain ones affect certain ages more. Among older people there are certain cancers that affect their age group more than others. One cancer …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out