Training must be specific which means that it should concentrate on the particular needs of the individual within the training programme. For example, lifting weights will increase muscular strength but will have little effect on the aerobic capacity of the individual. Although training should be specific to a sport this does not mean that training for sport will have little effect on another. Transfer of training can take place where the sport or parts of a sport have a great deal of similar elements of fitness are common to many sports Overload.
Overload is the term used to describe activities that impose demands on the body, which are greater than usual. There are three ways in which overload can be considered: frequency, intensity and duration. Frequency The frequency of training is the number of times training occurs. As levels of performance rise, the frequency of training is often increased. Top performers need to train most days, particularly long distance runners who need to run considerable distances in training to improve their aerobic capacity. Intensity Raising the workload increases intensity.
This means that you would have to run faster, lift heavier weights or stretch farther than normal during training. These increases would be built up over a period of time. Duration How long the training sessions takes place is determined by the activity and the fitness of the person. Untrained athletes may only be able to work for a few minutes when they are starting a new event. As athletes improve, they are able to train for longer periods. Progression Progression occurs as the body adapts through overload. Training needs to be progressive.
If the overload of the body systems is increased appropriately, then the improvement caused by training easily be seen, especially in the early stages of the training programme. If it is increased inappropriately then the body will not take on smooth progression because the body can’t adapt to too much overload. Sometimes a performer seems unable to make progress and stays at the same level for a period of time. This is known as a ‘plateau’, but performers are often able to improve after some time at this fixed level. ReversibilityCool down exercises at the end of the training sessions are as important as warm up exercises.
When a training session ends a large supply of blood is retained in the muscles. This blood should be returned to the general circulation as soon as possible, otherwise it may pool in the veins. If pooling does happen and the heart is still beating very fast, some organs may be deprived of oxygen. E. g. the brain being deprived of oxygen can cause you to become dizzy. Gentle exercise, such as jogging, is needed to ensure that the body returns to its normal state. The time your body takes to get back to normal after exercise is called your recovery rate. Your heart rate slows down to your normal resting heart rate.
The time it takes to return depends on how fit you are. The fitter the person is the quicker their heart rate returns to normal. Rest periods Rest periods are as important to training as hard physical exercise. During intensive hard work the muscle fibres may become slightly damaged and also develop a shortage of glycogen. The inclusion of rest days in the training schedule when only very light physical work or none at all is done will allow the muscles to recover. Also, a correct diet is needed to allow a good healthy physical lifestyle. You need the correct amount of carbohydrates, fats, sugars, vitamins and things from all the food groups.