Vision Correction

Ever since the 13th century, the search for ways in creating a cure for correcting the vision of a human person had been a concern for many scientists and doctors. The first pair of glasses or spectacles was discovered through attaching together the handles of two different magnifying lenses. In the following centuries, the continuous research and development in the field of vision correction did not stop. New innovations in the devices offered as well as the surgical procedures are now available for that is in need to have vision corrected without using eye glasses or contact lenses.

Currently, the field of science already developed different mechanisms, procedures and devices that could counter the problem of having an imperfect vision. The traditional eye glasses and contact lenses had been modified and are providing better scope of vision for every person who needs it. Lighter and more flexible materials are used in creating contact lenses and glasses which makes it much easier to carry. The hard to correct vision of a person in the past centuries already have an easy fix for many doctors now a days. One of those new innovations is called the LASIK Surgery.

The procedure is one of the most popular and controversial procedures that a person could under go to make his or her vision corrected. In this research I would lay down the positive and negative effects of LASIK Surgery and why it should and should not it be continuously practiced by the medical community towards their patients. History of LASIK Surgery: LASIK Surgery also known as (Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) which is one of the many procedures that could be undertaken by a patient who is in need to have a better vision or in much serious cases, to permanently fix eye problems.

For the past 100 years, interest in refractive surgery had always been present. In 1898, main principles in radial keratotomy were presented by a Dutch professor of Ophthalmology named Lans. In 1930’s, an Ophthalmologist named Sato was able to a revolutionary work in corneal incisions. He was able to attach incisions within the endothelial exterior of the cornea and the epithelial surface. Although he was able to do successful operations for his patients, his technique’s outcome resulted to the late corneal decompensation for most of his patients. (Laser Surgery for Eyes, n. p. )

In the 1970’s, Dr. Fyodorov, a Russian doctor was able to observe a case regarding trauma of the eye and, he brought about the practical application of refractive surgery by means of radial keratotomy. Dr. Fyodorov was taking care of a patient, a boy who had his glasses broken which had caused his corneal lacerations. After the boy’s recovery the patient’s vision or refraction was notably less myopic or near-sighted compared to the condition before the accident happened. The discovery made by Dr. Fyodorov launched the research of the past efforts made by other doctors in refractive surgery.

Afterwards, he continuously worked on a formula which created this practice more expected than it was before. (Laser Surgery for Eyes n. p. ) In the year 1978, some American ophthalmologists became interested in these discoveries. Leo Bores was the doctor who had introduced the technology in the United States after his visit to Fyodorov in Soviet Union. Ever since the launch of the new technology of radial keratotomy, the popularity of the medical procedure had made millions of patients that are wanting and are hoping to have perfect vision are requesting to undergo this kind of procedure.

(Laser Surgery for Eyes n. p. ) LASIK Surgery: LASIK Surgery is a procedure that is undertaken by people who desires to decrease their reliance on eye glasses or contact lenses. Through laser surgery, the patient could be provided enhanced vision correction without the use of eye classes or contact lenses (Lewis 26). In the AvMA Medical and Legal Journal it is stated that LASIK Surgery “is an elective procedure intended to correct common eye disorders known as refractive errors” (Chung, Brahma 70).

In an internet site, LASIK Surgery is seen as “…the latest and greatest,…It’s the newest and fastest growing tool eye surgeons now use to correct visual disturbances including nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism and more! ” (Arthur n. p. ). With these given definition and perspective, it does show that a LASIK surgery is the best way to go if a patient is in need of the best vision correcting procedure available in the medical community. But, what is truly done in the process of LASIK surgery? For a normal individual who has a perfect vision, the cornea is the main apparatus that focuses on objects that we see.

The light goes by the cornea and goes within the lens which then fits its trajectory to focus into the retina. “The exact ‘aberration-free’ eye will yield about 20/10 vision—a vision that enables you to read, a t a distance of 20 meter, a sign that most could read from only 10 meters away. ” Most people have a perfect vision however as time goes and because of the activities that are done by every individual, the eyes are being abused which leads to an imperfect vision. Most of these patients go to the doctor and are recommended to have corrective glasses or contact lenses to be able to have a better vision.

Other patients are not comfortable in wearing these corrective eye glasses as well as contact lenses so, they result to go through surgical methods in order to live a normal life. In simple terms, LASIK surgery is “sculpting of the eye,” it is a “procedure which reshapes the cornea so that the light passing through the eye focuses properly on to the retina” (Wanjek 36). In this procedure, there are three different vision problems that are dealt with which are Myopia or near-sightedness, Hyperopia or far-sightedness, and Astigmatism.

Although many proved that the LASIK surgical procedure is the best method to be used in addressing the problem of near-sightedness, far-sightedness and astigmatism, there are still negative feedbacks coming from many people who underwent that procedure. In an article written by Susan Mayor entitled “People considering laser eye surgery should be warned of risks, says NICE” she stated that, “Laser surgery for short and long sightedness and astigmatism is generally safe and effective, but surgeons should make people aware of the potential risks” (Mayor 746).

In another website it stated that “LASIK surgery may be just the tool you have been waiting for. BUT…Before you jump into the surgeon’s chair, you better know what lies ahead” (Arthur n. p. ). Positive and Negative Effects of LASIK Surgery: In an article published in 2007, it is confirmed by Cherry Guttman that LASIK is a predictable, safe and effective modalities in correcting moderate to low astigmatism and myopia. In addition she added graphs in order to fully create comparison and to formally present that the procedure have positive results.

She added that Dr. Hashemian a chairman of the Department of Ophthalmology, Negah Eye Center, Farj Hospital Tehran Iran stated that, “Our data suggest that the procedure can provide excellent efficacy and safety over all” (Guttman 37). In another article written in Ophthalmology Times, a type of LASIK Surgery was highlighted. The wave front-guided LASIK treatment works better compared to other LASIK surgery available due to its refractive accuracy, quality of vision as well as the safety of the patients.

In terms of everyday life, LASIK surgery has many of positive effects for a person. An individual is regularly using corrective glasses would not probably be using his or her pair of glasses anymore. The individual would be able to do sports such as running, basketball, tennis and the likes without thinking that he has glasses that he or she should take care of. The person could have a much active everyday life without thinking that he or she needs to take care of his or her glasses (Arthur n. p. ).

Like other people said, “there is freedom without glasses. ” With regard to wearing contact lenses, a person wearing this would not worry about having thick lenses that hides their eyes. Colors could also be changed every once in a while which makes wearing these contact lenses much cooler. The ability to change the color of the eyes whenever a person wants to is also an addition to the advantages of the wearing contact lenses (Arthur n. p. ). On the other hand I have discovered that there are much more negative reasons in under going a LASIK surgery.

First, the procedure is permanent and is not reversible—meaning that if a person had a surgery may it be successful or unsuccessful, it could not be changed at all. Before going into a procedure, the patient must think about it for many, many times. In addition, the patient must be able to find the right doctor and the most perfect LASIK procedure available because not everyone has the same case that would only be addressed by one technique. Another concern that the critics of this procedure have is the negative after effects of the surgery.

Many of the patients that underwent this procedure were not satisfied with their operation. Most of them are complaining that they have a hard time seeing at night most especially when driving. Leslie Woodlock, one of the millions of people who have undertaken LASIK surgery stated that, “Now I can’t drive at night because it’s so bright it’s like putting your head in a bag of Christmas lights,” she continued that, “I went to another doctor who said my corneas look like shattered windshields.

I have had four more surgeries in my left eye, but it can’t be fixed. It’s important people know this can happen” (Armour, Appleby n. p. ). Another interviewee named Cathy Bishop-Clark, a 37 years old woman stated that after the procedure, “I cannot read for any amount of time without experiencing substantial pain. I cannot go outside without wearing goggles because the wind is too much to tolerate, I have to close my eyes when people walk by me because I can feel the breeze they create in my eyes, and it is painful”(Armour, Appleby n.

p. ). Not only patients have expressed their growing concern on the problem but also doctors. A statement given by the director of the Food and Drug Administration’s division of ophthalmic and ear, nose and throat devices in the Center for Devices and Radiological Health Ralph Rosenthal stated that no one is sure about the long-term effects of the LASIK Surgery. No one knows the success or other consequences of the surgery. Sadly, even the Dr. Rosenthal cannot give the patients guarantee of the procedure.

The only suggestion that he said was that “people should carefully weigh the risks and benefits based on what is important to them and potential side effects including the pros and cons of having one or both eyes done on the same day. ” He also noted that it is also important that being able to be influenced by people who have already undergone LASIK surgery must be avoided or even the doctors that encourage their patients to do so (Lewis 27). In conclusion, LASIK surgery must be thought about by patients themselves. The decision must be thought about and not only be the result of influence of friends or doctors.

I personally believe that undergoing this surgical procedure is not that necessary in vision correction. If there are other ways such as corrective eye glasses and contact lenses, it is much better that the individual must try all of these devices first before undertaking this very dangerous procedure. I would like to take note that if the procedure is not done properly by the surgeon, the process cannot be reverted back and worst things may happen.

Works Cited:

Appleby, Julie. , Stephanie Armour. 28 June 2001. “LASIK risks understated. ” USA TODAY 04 July 2008, <http://www. -06-28-lasik. htm>. Arthur, Antigone. 4 July 2008. “The Benefits of LASIK vs. Contacts and Glasses. ” Lasikeyesurgerycorrection. com 4 July 2008 <http://www. lasikeyesurgerycorrection. com/lasik_benefits. html>. Chung, AKK, AK Brahma. “LASIK eye surgery: standard and safety issues. ” AvMA Medical & Legal Journal Volume 12, Number 2, March (2006): 70-73. Guttman, Cheryl. “LASEK, LASIK, safe effective for myopic astigmatism. ” Ophthalmology Times 2007 March 15, 37. Krueger, Ronald. , Scott McRae, MD, Robert Maloney, MD. “Wavefront-guided LASIK really is better experts say.

” Ophthalmology Times Volume 30 Number 4 (15 February 2005): 25-26. Laser Surgery For Eyes. 4 July 2008. “HISTORY OF LASER EYE SURGERY. ” LaserSurgeryForEyes. com 4 July 2008. <http://www. lasersurgeryforeyes. com/history. html>. Lewis, Carol. “Vision Correction: Taking A Look At What’s New. ” FDA Consumer September-October (2001): 25-31. Mayor, Susan. “People considering laser eye surgery should be warned of risks, says NICE. ” 1 April 2006. Bmj. com news roundup. 1 May 2003 <bmj. com/content /#NEWS_ROUNDUP>. Wanjek, Christopher. “LASIK EYE SURGERY for the Amateur Astronomer. ” Sky Telescope September (2005): 36-42.

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