Improve my performance of my chosen sport, furthermore improving the standard I currently compete at. So that my program becomes successful I must decide when I shall carry out my sessions so that they complement each other, and do not affect my performance in any given session. Therefore reasonable time between each session needs to be taken into consideration. Consequently there will always be at least a day between each training session. Fitness Requirements For Javelin The definition of fitness is best described as the following: ‘…the successful adaptation to the stressors of one’s lifestyle…
(Dick 1989) ‘… the ability to undertake everyday activities without undue fatigue… ‘ (SPORT & PE, Wesson, Wiggins, Thompson, Hartigan,) Being fit varies from person to person usually depending on what type of person they are and the quantity of physical activity they partake in. For example some people may believe that they are fit because they can walk all the way to town and back whereas more advanced sportspersons may believe that reaching high levels at the multistage fitness test show good fitness levels.
Due to there being so many different types of sports the components of fitness needed in these activities vary from sport to sport. These components are put into two different categories, health related fitness and skill related fitness. Skill related fitness includes factors such as agility, balance, co-ordination, reaction time and power. The health related fitness factors include the following and are physiologically based: 1. Cardio respiratory or Aerobic Endurance The ability to do moderately strenuous activity over a period of time.
It reflects how well your heart and lungs work together to supply oxygen to your body during exertion and exercise. Also called aerobic fitness. 2. Muscular Endurance The ability to hold a particular position for a sustained period of time or repeat a movement many times. This could be the capability required to hold a 2 kg weight above your head for five minutes or the effort required to lift that weight 20 consecutive times. 3. Muscular Strength The ability to exert maximum force, such as lifting the heaviest weight you can for 1 rep.
It is possible to have muscular strength in one area, say your arms, while lacking strength in another area such as your legs. 4. Flexibility The ability to move a joint through its full range of motion; the elasticity of the muscle. This is how supple you are. 5. Body Composition The proportion of fat in your body compared to your bone and muscle. It does not refer to your weight in kgs or your figure. Javelin requires the following components of fitness: The most important thing to remember is that it is essentially a ‘pulling’ event and to be able to pull with great force needs strength.
The main muscles needed in the arm are the biceps and triceps. These give you the strength to pull the javelin with great acceleration and as Sir Isaac Newton discovered, acceleration is proportional to the force applied to it. Also that the smaller the mass of the body the greater will be its acceleration for any given force. Force = mass x acceleration This means that the stronger you become the greater the weight you can lift. It also means you can lift a given weight faster if you are stronger. But it means that if your own weight stays constant and your strength improves then you should be able to move your weight faster.
The lower body is also needed to be strong if it is to stop your motion suddenly after the throw, this is called the block. The building up of the arm muscles can be done by regular weight training using exercises such as bench presses and bicep curls. Before this is done I must find my repetition maximum (1RM). This is the most that I can lift with one repetition. Once this has been found it is then possible to create a weight-training regime adjusting the resistance as a percentage of my maximum lift.
Because javelin requires maximum strength, training methods must incorporate exercises that will increase muscle strength thus increasing my maximum strength. Currently my 1RM is 45 kgs. I believe that this must be increased to at least 60 kgs by the end of my program in order to show that I have progressed and the schedule has been a success. I will test my 1RM after the schedule has finished to find out how much I have progressed. The power that I need is derived from the fibres within the muscles. Fast twitch fibres have a high contraction speed and therefore are suited to a javelin thrower.
Unlike slow twitch fibres the mitochondrial enzyme (useful for aerobic activity) is low and so have poor endurance. The difference in blood supply between the fibres leads to a difference in colour. Slow twitch fibres are redder and fast twitch fibres are whiter. Also strength can be built up by throwing javelins that are heavier than the actual weight that you would use in a competition. Although this slows down the speed in which the javelin is released, it also overloads you, causing progression. Power Power is the amount of work done per unit of time: the product of strength and speed.
Power is needed in javelin when doing the actual throw. Power = speed + strength Speed is also vital in javelin for many reasons. In the final action when the arm whips the javelin speed is of the essence. A fast arm is very important especially when you are young and do not have large arm muscles. This is used to throw the javelin at a very fast speed. Flexibility Flexibility is also required for javelin just like it is for most sports. In javelin is particularly important that you are flexible in your arm and back, or it could result in a serious injury.
Flexibility is the range of movement possible at a joint. Flexibility is determined by the elasticity of ligaments and tendons, the strength and opposition of opposing muscles (including antagonists) and the shape of the articulating bones (SPORT & PE, Wesson, Wiggins, Thompson, Hartigan,). It is important that to stay flexible and not allow reversibility, stretches should be done regularly, at least once every two days. This stops any risk of seizing up and allowing tendons, muscles and ligaments from tightening up.