What causes cancer? Cancer is ultimately the result of cells that uncontrollably grow and do not die. Normal cells in the body follow an orderly path of growth, division, and death. Programmed cell death is called apoptosis, and when this process breaks down, cancer begins to form. Unlike regular cells, cancer cells do not experience programmatic death and instead continue to grow and divide. This leads to a mass of abnormal cells that grows out of control. How can cancer be prevented? Cancers that are closely linked to certain behaviors are the easiest to prevent.
For example, choosing not to smoke tobacco or drink alcohol significantly lower the risk of several types of cancer – most notably lung, throat, mouth, and liver cancer. Even if you are a current tobacco user, quitting can still greatly reduce your chances of getting cancer. Skin cancer can be prevented by staying in the shade, protecting yourself with a hat and shirt when in the sun, and using sunscreen. Diet is also an important part of cancer prevention since what we eat has been linked to the disease. Physicians recommend diets that are low in fat and rich in fresh fruits and vegetables and whole grains.
Certain vaccinations have been associated with the prevention of some cancers. For example, many women receive a vaccination for the human papillomavirus because of the virus’s relationship with cervical cancer. Hepatitis B vaccines prevent the hepatitis B virus, which can cause liver cancer. Some cancer prevention is based on systematic screening in order to detect small irregularities or tumors as early as possible even if there are no clear symptoms present. Breast self-examination, mammograms, testicular self-examination, and Pap smears are common screening methods for various cancers.
Researchers from Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago reported in the journal Circulation that the 7 steps recommended for protection against heart disease can also reduce the risk of developing cancer,. They include being physically active, eating a healthy diet, controlling cholesterol, managing blood pressure, reducing blood sugar and not smoking. What causes Hypercholesterolemia? * Heredity: High levels of cholesterol may be inherited because genes may influence the metabolism of LDL (bad) cholesterol.
* Foods high in saturated fats and Cholesterol: This is the most common cause of hypercholesterolemia as excess of saturated fats may modestly increase LDL (bad) cholesterol level. * Other diseases: Some people suffering from diabetes may have high levels of cholesterol. * Lifestyle Changes: Changes in lifestyle has lead to decrease in exercise which may lead to increase in fat and cholesterol levels. How can Hypercholesterolemia be prevented? All adults over 20 should have a lipid panel every 5 years if LDL cholesterol is less than 130, and every 1-3 years if LDL cholesterol is borderline (between 130 and 160).
LDL is the part of the cholesterol panel that is most significant when determining treatment, as well as determining how often lipid panels should be checked. Tests may be carried out more frequently in those with risk factors for heart or vascular disease or when medically indicated. How can AIDS be prevented? Worryingly, many people think there is a ‘cure’ for HIV, the virus that causes AIDS – which perhaps makes them take risks that they otherwise wouldn’t. However, there is still no cure for HIV. The only way to ensure that you avoid AIDS is to be aware of how HIV is transmitted and how to prevent HIV infection.
However, people can take antiretroviral treatment, which suppresses the HIV virus. This can prevent them from reaching a point where they are diagnosed with AIDS. Also, in some cases, it is possible for a person who has an AIDS diagnosis to regain a strong immune system with antiretroviral therapy. However, once somebody is diagnosed with AIDS, officially they keep this diagnosis for life even though in reality an opportunistic infection may be cured or the number of immune system cells (CD4 cells) in their blood may increase to recommended levels. What causes AIDS? How HIV affects the body
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, shortened AIDS, is caused by HIV. Some people may refer to AIDS as advanced HIV infection. HIV is a virus that gradually attacks immune system cells. As HIV progressively damages these cells, the body becomes more vulnerable to infections, which it will have difficulty in fighting off. It is at the point of very advanced HIV infection that a person is said to have AIDS. If left untreated, it can take around ten years before HIV has damaged the immune system enough for AIDS to develop. What causes pneumonia? Bacteria and viruses are the primary causes of pneumonia.
When a person breathes pneumonia-causing germs into his lungs and his body’s immune system cannot otherwise prevent entry, the organisms settle in small air sacs called alveoli and continue multiplying. As the body sends white blood cells to attack the infection, the sacs become filed with fluid and pus – causing pneumonia. How can pneumonia be prevented? * Get a seasonal flu shot. The influenza virus can be a direct cause of viral pneumonia. Bacterial pneumonia is also a common complication of the flu. A yearly flu shot provides significant protection. * Get a pneumonia vaccination.
Doctors recommend a one-time vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria (pneumococcus) for everyone older than age 65, as well as for people of any age residing in nursing homes and long-term care facilities, and for smokers. The vaccine is especially recommended for anyone at high risk of pneumococcal pneumonia. Some doctors recommend a booster shot five years after the first dose. * Have your child vaccinated. Doctors recommend a different pneumonia vaccine for all children younger than age 2 and for children ages 2 to 5 years who are at particular risk of pneumococcal disease.
Children who attend a group day care center should also get the vaccine. Doctors also recommend seasonal flu shots for children older than six months. * Practice good hygiene. To protect yourself against ordinary respiratory infections that sometimes lead to pneumonia, wash your hands regularly or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. * Don’t smoke. Smoking damages your lungs’ natural defenses against respiratory infections. * Stay rested and fit. Proper rest, a healthy diet and moderate exercise can help keep your immune system strong. * Set an example. Stay home when you’re sick.
When you’re in public and have a cold, catch your coughs and sneezes in the inner crook of your elbow. What Causes Heart Disease? Research suggests that coronary heart disease (CHD) begins with damage to the lining and inner layers of the coronary (heart) arteries. Several factors contribute to this damage. They include: * Smoking, including secondhand smoke * High amounts of certain fats and cholesterol in the blood * High blood pressure * High amounts of sugar in the blood due to insulin resistance or diabetes * Blood vessel inflammation Plaque may begin to build up where the arteries are damaged.
The buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries may start in childhood. Over time, plaque can harden or rupture (break open). Hardened plaque narrows the coronary arteries and reduces the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart. This can cause chest pain or discomfort called angina. If the plaque ruptures, blood cell fragments called platelets (PLATE-lets) stick to the site of the injury. They may clump together to form blood clots. Blood clots can further narrow the coronary arteries and worsen angina. If a clot becomes large enough, it can mostly or completely block a coronary artery and cause a heart attack.
In addition to the factors above, low estrogen levels before or after menopause may play a role in causing coronary microvascular disease (MVD). Coronary MVD is heart disease that affects the heart’s tiny arteries. The cause of broken heart syndrome isn’t yet known. However, a sudden release of stress hormones may play a role in causing the disorder. Most cases of broken heart syndrome occur in women who have gone through menopause. How can Hearth Disease be prevented? Heart disease is the leading cause of the death in the U. S. Over one quarter of all deaths are from heart disease. It is also a major cause of disability.
The risk of heart disease increases as you age. You have a greater risk of heart disease if you are a man over age 45 or a woman over age 55. You also are at greater risk if you have a close family member who had heart disease at an early age. Fortunately, there are many things you can do reduce your chances of getting heart disease. You should * Know your blood pressure and keep it under control * Exercise regularly * Don’t smoke * Get tested for diabetes and if you have it, keep it under control * Know your cholesterol and triglyceride levels and keep them under control * Eat a lot of fruits and vegetables * Maintain a healthy weight.