The respiratory system

Any condition affecting the respiratory system can be termed as a respiratory condition. Respiratory conditions may also be referred to as lung diseases and they include the breathing problems such as bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, flu and the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which may also be referred to as Emphysema. Some symptoms include chest pains, Syncope, Dyspnoea, and shortness of breath. Breathing problems and allergies are common among the American children that is asthma lung disease and other breathing problems. According to Berton,( 2004, p.

34). Emphysema was initially refer ed to as chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD). It was due to the long term exposure of toxic chemicals. The tobacco and smoke exposure was another cause. Mainly associated with elasticity loss in the lung tissue. This is caused by the killing of the structures in support of the alveolar. The capillaries which feed the alveolar are also destroyed as the action of the alpha 1 antirypse is not sufficient. This makes the small airway collapse in the process of exhalation as the alveolar collapsibility increases.

The air flow is then blocked and it is trapped in the lungs as it is the condition with the other lung diseases which are obstructive. The symptoms of this disease include the shortness of breath and an expanded chest. People suffering from this disease often have a perfect blood oxygen level this is through hyperventilating these are sometimes called ‘pink puffers’. These can be contrasted with chronic bronchitis which is another (COPD) disorder and its suffers are often referred to as ‘blue bloaters’ as they have cyanosis that is inadequate oxygen as a result of a ventilation drive which is almost normal.

The ventilation drive is caused by the decrease in sensitivity of carbon dioxide. According to Fred,(2001, p. 682) any COPD disease is known to result to hypoxaemia that is there is a decrease in blood partial pressure. The other condition that that is mostly likely to be caused by COPD is hypercapnia which means that there is increased blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Some of the signs of the disease may be finger clubbing and a breathing that is purse lipped. The chest has increased percussions.

Faces of the affected individuals often are accompanied by a completion that is often ruddy that is the present of Polycythemia. If Emphysema is in its advanced stage fluids overload are common. Other symptoms that may arise include the breath sounds that are very decreased. The psychological implication and social ramification of the disease may be explained in terms of its effects, this was according to John, (2005, p. 45)). For instance smoking was known to cause cancer. Initial inhalation of tobacco may produce dizziness, nausea sweating and palpitations.

The psychological physical dependence on cigarettes and nicotine develops. The smokers cough develops as a sign of bronchitis infection. What follow latter are the physical problems which may include the respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer and stroke. Fertility problems may develop in both male and female. Emphysema is considered an incurable disease resulting from the toxic environmental factors and tobacco use among the individuals. The disease destroys the lung elasticity.

Most individuals with the condition are treated with medications, inhalers although some patients require oxygen to supplement. On improving the quality of life of an individual some treatments like those of large volume reduction surgery may be carried out. This condition can be controlled in many ways such as reduction of the toxic chemicals in the environment. This can reduce the number of people getting infected. Some conditions can also be imposed by the government such as prohibition of public smoking and also higher taxes can be imposed on the tobacco products.

This will ensure that the number of people buying the product are reduced. People with the initial signs of the condition can be isolated and be put on medication to avoid the wide spread of the diseases.


Berton R. Shayeults. (2004), Emphysema: the chronic Bronchitis, US, West Publishing Company. Fred A. Obley, (2001), Emphysema, Michigan, Hat worth press. John J. Green, (2005), Emphysema the lung surgery, U. S, U. S. Human Health Services.

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