Sexually Transmitted Infections

Genital herpes is a viral infection that causes lesions or sores in the genital area and is spread through sexual intercourse or by touching a sore and then touching another part of your body; it is a highly contagious virus. Often it does not present with symptoms, or produces very mild symptoms such that the infected individual is unaware they have it. When symptoms are present they may include: pain or itching, small red bumps, tiny white blisters, ulcers from the sores rupturing and scabs over ulcer sites. Urination may be painful. At the initial onset of infection,flu-like symptoms may be experienced.

The sores typically appear first at the entrance site of the infection. Genital herpes does not have a cure and is a recurring disease, meaning someone infected may have several outbreaks in a year, or even more frequent than that. The long term effects include coping and managing outbreaks, as well as informing any partner(s) so as to prevent spreading. Individuals infected with genital herpes are at risk of contracting other STI’s due to open sores.

Other consequences include causing infection or even death in newborns of infected mothers, bladder complications or possibly meningitis (Mayo Clinic 2014) Unit 9 Assignment 1 2 AIDS, or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, is a condition that develops from the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and compromises the body’s ability to fight infection. There is no cure for this disease, but medical advancements have produced treatments and therapies that allow infected individuals to function fairly normally and extend life expectancy. AIDS can be spread through any sexual contact as well as through blood via transfusions or needle sharing and from a mother to fetus or newborn.

Initial infection may present flu-like symptoms. These include: diarrhea, fever, headache, sores, muscle soreness, rashes, sore throat, night sweats and swollen glands. However, many diagnosed with HIV/AIDS may present with no symptoms. In addition, it can be as long as 10 years before the virus is detected after infection. Most who become infected with HIV will develop AIDS eventually. Once the virus had progressed that far the immune system is significantly compromised and the individual is susceptible to many other threatening illnesses, particularly opportunistic infections.

The long term effects of this syndrome include a plethora of medication and therapy to attempt to protect the body from illness and infection. Also, it is important for the individual to be aware and careful to prevent infecting others (HIV/AIDS 2014). Chlamydia is the most commonly reported STD in the US. It can be cured, and can be contracted by both men and women, but if left untreated can have severe effects to the reproductive system in women, often preventing the ability to get pregnant. Chlamydia is spread during sex or childbirth, and it is possible to be infected multiple times even if previously cured.

The effects on a newborn include pneumonia or an eye infection, or premature delivery. It is possible for Chlamydia to produce no symptoms, although it can still have detrimental effects in their absence, and it may be weeks before symptoms are seen or the infection is detected with testing. Women with symptoms may have vaginal discharge or burning with urination; in men a Unit 9 Assignment 1 3 penile discharge, pain with urination or swelling and pain in one or both testicles may indicate Chlamydia. Chlamydia can be cured with medication, but it is crucial to take all medication to prevent more problems (Chlamydia 2014).

Gonorrhea , also known as the Clap or the drip, is a common STI. It is caused by a bacteria that thrives in warm moist areas. It may develop in the urethra in men or in the reproductive tracts of women. Gonorrhea can develop 2 to 5 days after initial contact. Signs and symptoms include: painful urination, frequent urination, penile or vaginal discharge, sore throat, red or swollen urethra or testicles in men, pain with sex, severe lower abdomen pain or fever in women. The infection may spread to the blood stream and cause more serious and aggregate symptoms. Gonorrhea is treated and cured with antibiotics.

If treated quickly enough it causes no detrimental issues, but longer infection can be problematic; still antibiotics are usually effective. The infection can sometimes create scarring of the urethra in men and fallopian tubes causing conception issues in women. In both it can lead to meningitis and heart valve or joint infections (Gonorrhea 2014). Syphilis is also a bacterial STI. It begins as a sore and is spread through sexual contact, or any contact with skin or mucous membranes and the sore. Once it has been contracted, it can remain dormant for very long periods of time before presenting and acting.

If untreated or allowed to progress to far it can cause severe damage to organs and body systems and be life threatening. As motioned, Syphilis can remain dormant and may exhibit no symptoms for years, but the first sign is the initial sore where the bacteria entered the body; this is called a chancre and is the primary stage of syphilis. Secondary syphilis brings about a rash and sometimes fever and achiness as well. This may last up to a year before the infection progresses to the latent stage where no symptoms occur – this is the stage that may last many years.

If it progresses the last Unit 9 Assignment 1 4 stage is tertiary syphilis; this results from lack of treatment and may be detrimental to vital organs and processes. Syphilis in most often treated with Penicillin and if done so promptly enough is easy to cure, however, periodic blood tests are required to monitor the effects of Penicillin treatment (Syphilis 2014). Genital warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), which as a multitude of forms. They appear as soft tissue growths in the genital regions of both men and women. High risk strands of the virus can lead to cervical cancer or anal cancer.

Genital warts are spread via sexual contact. Contact with the virus may or may not lead to warts, and if it does it may do so in weeks or possibly take months to years. In the genital region HPV is somewhat common and usually does not have symptoms. In women it can develop inside the vagina or cervix, where the warts are difficult to detect. The chief sign of HPV is the warts, but they may or may not be visible; they can sometimes occur in the lips, mouth, tongue or throat. Genital warts are treated by a physician with skin treatments or prescriptions.

They may be removed by freezing, burning, laser or surgery (Genital warts 2014). Crabs are the common name for the sexually transmitted parasites known as pubic lice. These are not the same as head lice. They are parasites usually found in the genital areas but may also be found in other areas with course hair. Signs and symptoms include itching in the genital area, the presence of visible nits which are lice eggs, or actual crawling lice. It is possible but less common for crabs to be spread via physical contact with clothing or linens of an infested person. Crabs are treated with a lice cream and have no long term effects (Pubic lice 2014).

Trichomoniasis is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. It is considered the most common curable STD. The parasite resides most often in the lower Unit 9 Assignment 1 5 genital area in women or inside the penis in men and is transferred from one to the other during sexual contact. Symptoms of trich are fleeting and most often do not exist. They may include itching, burning, inflammation, discomfort with urination, discharge or unpleasant sex. Due to inflammation trich may make it easier to contract other STDs while infected.

Trich is cured with a single dose of antibiotic taken orally (Trichomoniasis 2012). Human papillomavirus is the most common STI in the United States. It can lead to other health problems, such as genital warts and cancer, however most often it is asymptomatic and causes no health issues. There are many different versions of HPV and there are vaccines to prevent its development. Most who are infected do not even know they have HPV and it will usually go away on its own. Still, vaccines and limiting sexual activity are recommended, as this is the mode of transmission (Human papillomavirus 2014).

Shigella is an intestinal disease resulting from bacteria known as shigella. It can be transferred through direct contract with the bacteria in the stool; this can come from not washing hands, changing diapers or anal sexual activities. Contaminated water can also lead to the disease. The main sign of Shigella is bloody diarrhea, which is also accompanied by fever and cramping. Asymptomatic individuals are still contagious. The bacteria and illness are usually done after 5 to 7 days; treatment consists of plenty of fluids and electrolytes. When severe antibiotics may be used to reduce the duration and effects.

Medications for treating diarrhea can enhance the condition and should be avoided (Shigella 2014). Cryptosporidium is a parasite that causes intestinal disease resulting in diarrhea, known as cryptosporidiosis, or Crypto. The parasite lives in the intestinal tract of humans and animals and is shed through the feces. It is most commonly spread through contaminated water, as the Unit 9 Assignment 1 6 parasite has an outer shell that allows it to survive longer and resist more, however it can also be spread through various situations putting an individual at risk of fecal contact, such as certain sexual activities.

Within 2 to 10 days Crypto will cause stomach cramps, dehydration, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss, though some will be asymptomatic. Most often no treatment is required, just plenty of fluid intake for effects of diarrhea. However, immunocompromised individuals, such as those with AIDS must consult a physician and take special mediations to combat the effects (Cryptosporidiosis 2014). Giardia lamblia is also a parasitic infection of the intestines, most commonly found in areas of poor sanitation or water supply. It is a waterborne infection bit can also be transferred in food or person-to-person.

It is spread through presence of the parasite in the stool. For those that present with symptoms, they will appear within one to two weeks and include: watery, foul diarrhea; nausea; fatigue or malaise; cramps; bloating; belching gas and weight loss. These can last up to four weeks and may even recur. Children, those with poor drinking water and those who participate in anal sex are at risk. If symptoms are severe and prolonged treatment with antibiotic may be necessary (Giardia infection 2014).Unit 9 Assignment 1 7.

References Chlamydia – CDC Fact Sheet. (2014, June 30). Retrieved August 20, 2014, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website: http://www. cdc. gov/std/chlamydia/STDFact-Chlamydia. htm Cryptosporidiosis. (2014). Retrieved August 20, 2014, from Center for Disease Control and Prevention website: http://www. cdc. gov/parasites/crypto/treatment. html Genital herpes. (2014, May 21). Retrieved August 20, 2014, from Mayo Clinic website: http://www. mayoclinic. org/diseases-conditions/genital-herpes/basics/symptoms/con- 20020893 Genital Warts. (2014). Retrieved August 20, 2014, from MedLine Plus website: http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000886. htm Giardia infection. (2014).

Retrieved August 20, 2014, from Mayo Clinic website: http://www. mayoclinic. org/diseasesconditions/giardiainfection/basics /treatment/con20024686 Gonorrhea. (2014). Retrieved August 20, 2014, from National Library of Health (PubMed) website: http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0004526/ Unit 9 Assignment 1 8 HIV/AIDS. (2014). Retrieved August 20, 2014, from Medline Plus website: http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000594. htm Human papillomavirus. (2014). Retrieved August 20, 2014, from Centers for Disease Conrtol and Prevention website: http://www. cdc. gov/std/hpv/stdfact-hpv. htm Pubic Lice (Crabs).

(2014). Retrieved August 20, 2014, from MedicineNet. com website: http://www. medicinenet. com/pubic_lice_crabs/article. htm Shigella. (2014). Retrieved August 20, 2014, from Mayo Clinic website: http://www. mayoclinic. org/diseases-conditions/shigella/basics/treatment/con-20028418 Syphillis. (2014). Retrieved August 20, 2014, from Mayo Clinic website: http://www. mayoclinic. org/diseases-conditions/syphilis/basics/treatment/con-20021862 Trichomoniasis. (2012, August 3). Retrieved August 20, 2014, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website: http://www. cdc. gov/STd/trichomonas/STDFact- Trichomoniasis. htm.

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