Scientific method

1. 1. Background (Why the research title is selected) Backgrounddescribesreasonstojustifytheadoptionoftheresearchtitle. Quantitativedatato supportstatementsisstronglyrecommended. Itconcludeswithastatementfocusingonthe justification of the research to be carried out. 1. 2. Research Problems (What problems to be addressed) Researchproblemsareidentifiedandformulatedfromthescopeoftheresearch. Theyare selected asthe ones theresearchis going toaddress. Here isonly example of researchproblems from a research entitled “ Breast Cancer Among Black Women”. 1. The higher incidence of breast cancer among black Women. 2.

The increased risk of diagnosis with advance-stage breast cancer among black women. 3. The higher mortality rate among black women who are diagnosed with breast cancer. 1. 3. Research Objectives (What targets should be achieved) Researchobjectivesconsistofgeneralobjectiveandspecificobjectives. Basedontheresearch problems the research tries to solve, the objectives are formulated. For example, in relation to the topic discussed, research objectives are as follows. 1. To observe the participation patterns of black women in relation to breast cancer screening.

2. Todeterminetheextent towhichblackwomen receivefollow-uptreatmentif breastcanceris detected, and to ascertain the nature of the intervention. 1. 4. Significance of Study (What benefits will be gained. The novel part of the research outcomes. ) Example from the related research topic. The study is significant for three reasons. 1. Sinceblackfemaleshaveahigherrateofdeathfrombreastcancerthanwhitewomen,the issue of screening and mammography offered at health clinics and hospitals is crucial.

2. The study will address the issue of barriers and obstacles to adequate health care delivery with this population. 3. The study is significant because of its implications for health education, early detection, and screening for breast cancer. 1. 5. Research Questions Example from the related research topic. Question #1: What is the level of knowledge among Black women regarding breast cancer? Question #2:

What is the level of knowledge among Black women regarding breast cancer screening? Question #3: What is the frequency of visits that Black women make to physicians for breast cancer screening or routine physical examinations? Question #4: To what extent do the Black women in the study have a history of breast cancer in their families? 1. 6. Hypothesis Example from the related research topic.

Hypothesis # 1: Subjects with a higher educational level will demonstrate higher rates of breast cancer screening than those with lower levels of education. Hypothesis #2: Subjects from higher income levels will demonstrate higher rates of breast cancer screening than those from lower income level. Hypothesis#3:Subjectswithafamilyhistoryofbreastcancerwilldemonstratehigherratesof breast cancer screening. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW Reviewofscientificpublicationsdescribingpreviousstudiesrelatedtotheresearchtopic,and researchobjectives. Thus,generaltheoryandknowledge,shouldbelimitedtotheminimum.

Review is expected to be carried out on scientific articles in journals, proceedings, and thesis. Citationofreviewisstrictlyfromscientificpublication,nonscientificorpopularpublications suchasmedia,newspapers,andpopularmagazinesarestrictlytobeavoidedinascientific writing. Lecture notes, laboratory manual, and training manual are neither allowed. 3. RESEARCH METHODS (How research will be carried out) Therearevariouskindsofresearch. Thisguidelineoutlinesfiveofthem,i. e. ,evaluation research,experimentalresearch,hardwareandsoftwaredesign,simulationandmodelling,and uniqueresearchsuchasintheinformationtechnology.

Othertypeofresearchwillberather inclusive, and should be discussed with the advisors. The common mistakes that should be strictly avoided are as follows. 1. Usingatitleofchapterorsub-chapterthathavebeenusedpreviouslysuchasrepetitionof introduction, and research objectives. 2. Theuseof“major”researchassub-chapterafter“preliminaryresearch”. Thereisnosuch “major” research since all part of the research is essential. After “preliminary research” name the following part of your research to reflect the content. 3. Puttingoutlineofthesisinsub-chapterofResearchMethod. Outlineofthesishasbeenstated in the Table of Content.

4. Puttingquestionmarkinthechaptertitle. Thisisscientificpublication,allsentencesare statement sentences except in Research Question. 3. 1. Suggested Outline for Evaluation Research 1. Scope of Study Describe the scope of the research in this sub-chapter. 2. Time Frame of Study Time frame of study indicates the time boundary for taking data which will be used in the analysis. 3. Research Process/Research Framework Researchframeworkorresearchprocessillustratestheflowofresearchstepbystep withintheboundaryofresearchscope. Flowchartiscommontohelpinexplainingthe framework or process. 4. Population and Sampling Method.

Thetargetpopulationforthestudyisidentified,andthemethodofsamplingfor respondents, and data collection is outlined. 5. Data Sources and Collection Allmethodstocollectbothprimaryandsecondarydatafromvarioussourcesare described in detail, such as survey, in-depth interview, and Focus GroupDiscussion. The development of questionnaire is also explained. 6. Method of Analysis All analytical methods and tests should be described one by one in relation to the research processorresearchframework,suchasdescriptive,statistical,valuechain,cluster approach, gap, SWOT, and I/E matrix analysis, and validity test. 3.

2. Suggested Outline for Experimental Research 1. Venue and Time 2. Materials and Equipments Describe in details the homogeneity and the sources of the main material treated in the study. Thisisessentialsince initialdiversityof treatedmaterialwillproduce varieties in the results thatinterferewith the influences of treatments onany observed variable. Exampleofthedescriptionisasfollows:“Mangosteenfruitswasharvestedatthe maturity index of 4 meaning around 108 days after anthesis from the farmer orchard at Kiarapedes, Purwakarta district, West Java, Indonesia. The size of mangosteen was 5- 6fruits/kg.

Thefruitswerecarriedinaplasticcrateusinglandvehicletothe laboratory,andwereexposedtothesurroundingairuntilthetreatmentswereapplied on the second day after harvest”. Avoidputtingsmallapplianceslikeknife,cuttingboard,beakerglass,andpetridish. Concentrate on key equipments stating the name, brand and serial number. The picture of analytical instruments do need to be posted in the thesis body. On the other hand, specific assembled experimental instrument for the research should be included in this sub-chapter. 3. Preliminary Research 4. Design of Experiments Outline the treatment factors and the level of treatment per each factor.

Treatments are variables that purposively varied in a research to check for their influence to a specific target. Provide description, and function of all treatments. Indicatethestatisticalanalysisthatisgoingtobeusedtoprocessthedataresulted from the experiment. State the number of replications to be carried out during the study. 5. Experimental Procedure Illustratethestepbystepprocesstakentoconducttheexperimentincludingthe applied treatments. Flow chart will help to understand the procedure. 6. Observations Determinethephysico-chemicalparametersthataregoingtobemeasuredtoobserve theinfluenceoftheappliedtreatments.

Observedparametersaredifferentfromthe measuredones. Forexample,fruitcolorisameasuredparameter,butthechangesof fruit color is an observed parameter. 7. Analytical Procedure Describedthe analytical procedureto measure theobservedparameters using international standard. 3. 3. Suggested Outline for Hardware and Software Design 1. Design Justification Theoverviewofdesigntobedevelopedisdescribedalongwithnecessaryjustification for each of element. 2. Components of Design Componentsofdesignmayconsistoffunctionaldesignandstructuraldesign,or mechanical, electrical, and program design.

Each should be described in details including the drawing. 3. Performance Test In concise description, write the performance test of the designed prototype or system. 3. 4. Suggested Outline for Simulation and Modelling 1. Theoretical Approach Providebasictheory forthesimulationmodelfollowedupby theformulatedmodelthat is going to be developed in the study. 2. Experimental Considerations Inaconcisedescription,outlinethetimeandvenue,thematerialsandequipments,the treatments, and the experimental procedure to carry out the experiment. 3. Model Validity Describe the model validity test against the results of the experimental data. 4.

Sensitivity Test Test thesensitivityof themodel varyingsome variablesthat may haveinfluences onthe model performances. 3. 5. Suggested Outline for Unique Research (such as Information Technology) 1. Research Framework Research framework illustratestheflow ofresearchstep bystep within theboundaryof research scope. Flow chart is common to help in explaining the framework or process. 2. System Overview System overview consists of system definition, planning, and implementation. Each should be described proportionally to the framework outlined in the previous chapter. 3. Data Collection and Analysis.

Methodtocollectdatashouldbeexplainedherelikedatapreparation,survey,and measurement. The analysis of collected data is described such as algorithm or other ways of analysis. 4. Application and Performance Test This sub-chapter covers the applicationof thedefined system, theperformance measurement, and other characteristics such as the indicated error, and precision. 4. REFERENCES Refer to the guidelines for references. PROPOSED ADVISOR I propose Mr. /Ms.

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