Role of Plant

Plants are extremely useful for us. On the one hand they provide us with the oxygen we need to be able to breathe. But furthermore, they contribute with nutrients through food. The use of the plant as food has been a search from the beginning of the humanity, looking for the differences among those species that were foods from the ones that were not. In this search, man has experimented with plants in his own body and has seen how what he although was food was in fact a mortal poison.

Recent research has shown impressive facts about the scale of the developed world’s dependence upon medicinal plants and the monetary and social values that this usage represents. The statistics that ? of all prescriptions dispensed in the developed world are likely to contain one or more ingredients derived from higher plants is now commonly quoted also, the global monetary value of plant-based pharmaceuticals by the year 2000 was estimated to reach $500billion.

It appears however, that this dependence on medicinal plants is still not widely acknowledged by the general public or endorsed by the medical profession at large, and the view prevails that medicinal plants are at best marginal to mainstream medicine- an image that pharmaceutical companies have done little to dispel. The fact remains that medicinal plants are in demand in two main areas: medical demand and economic and social demand Medical demand includes the allopathic medicine and herbal remedies (phytomedicine).

In allopathic medicine, active ingredients or constituents from plants are used in the main following ways: directly as drugs or therapeutic agents as starting materials for the synthesis of other drugs; as model for new synthetic drugs; and as tools in drug development and testing. Many of our most valuable plant-derived drugs used to treat specific conditions, such as digitoxin and tubocurarine are still unsurpassed in their respective fields and cannot be synthesized.

Some 95 plant species have been listed as the source of 121 clinically useful prescription drugs derived from higher plants, but a far higher number are contained in the great variety of medicines that can be bought over the counter. In phytomedicine or herbal remedies, as used by homeopaths and herbalist, and which can be purchased in health food shops, supermarkets and food supplements. The socio-economic demand on the other hand is due to the percentage of the population depending on medicinal plants and the global monetary value on them which varies from country to country and from one continent to another.

Furthermore, I will love to use this seminar to educate some of us who strongly believe that herbal or medicinal plants should neither be studied at all nor be recommended to people as medical remedies, having the mindset that it is occultic, devilish or archaic. From the write-up of Prof. Frank N. I. Moral (Professor of Natural Products Chemistry) “ Herbal healing is the most ancient form of healing known to mankind. It is as old as the human society. The apparently instinctive practice of taking drugs also exists amongst the lower animals.

It is therefore common to see cats, dogs and snakes etc. going to eat particular herbs whenever they are sick. It is conceivable that early man through such instincts or through divine revelation as claimed by many herbalists discovered his herbal drugs. God created plants on the third day. “Then God said, let the earth bring forth grass, the herbs that yield seeds and the fruit, tree that yield fruit according to its kind, whose seed is in itself on the earth and it was so … and God saw that it was good” (Genesis 1: 11 – 12).

Plants through the special power given to them by God are able to synthesize a wide variety of organic compounds of nearly every conceivable structural class. As a result, plants act as chemical industries. The different types of plants act as food factory, dye and colorant factory, perfume and cosmetic factory, gum factory, sugar factory, vegetable oil factory, insecticide factory, textile fiber factory, drug factory, etc. It is the plant pharmaceutical industry that is of special interest to us in this lecture.

As Thomas Jefferson wrote “The greatest service which can be rendered to any country is to add a useful plant to its culture”. A herbalist is one who studies, collects, sells or administers plants and/or plant products for healing purposes (Morah, 2007). The name herbalist has been most loosely and erroneously used in Nigeria, especially in the print media, to be synonymous with voodoo doctor, witch doctor and sorcerer. Although a herbalist is free to practice any of these arts, it is wrong to take them to be synonymous with herbal healing.

Otherwise the respected men of God like the pastors, reverend fathers and bishops who combine their pastoral and Episcopal duties with alternative (herbal) medicine should have been tagged sorcerers, witch doctors or voodoo doctors. It is sincerely hoped that the media will help us to correct this whenever they are presenting any report on herbal healing to the public. Herbal healing is ordained by God almighty. The divine injunctions on herbal healing include:- (a) “Now Isaiah said, let them take a lump of fig and apply it as a poultice on the boil and he shall recover” (Isaiah 38:21).

(b) “Their fruits will be for food and their leaves for medicine” (Ezekiel 47: 12). (c) “For one believes he may eat all things but he who is weak eats only vegetables” (Romans 14:2). (d) “In the middle of its street and on either side of the river was the tree of life, which bore twelve fruits each, yielding its fruits every month. The leaves of the trees are for the healing of the nations” (Revelation, 22:2). It is clear from the above biblical injunctions that God has given His approval and holy seal on herbal healing. Who are we then to disobey the words of the Lord our God?

According to Reverend Father Ansalem Adodo “the greatest threat to human development and growth today is no longer the atomic bomb. The greatest threat is a mindset that tempts us to believe that there is only one way to do things …that only one form of medical system is valid, forgetting that people of different cultures had over the centuries developed their own kind of medical treatment which is equally valid. Cultural diversity not monoculture is the nature of life”. Herbal healing constitutes a major aspect of traditional medical practice in Nigeria.

There is documentary evidence to show that herbal medicine was practiced in Africa as far back as 3,500 BC by the Egyptians. Hippocrates, the father of medicine, depended on the use of herbs for his success. The importance of traditional medicine as a source of primary health care was first officially recognized by World Health Organization (WHO), in the Primary Health care Declaration of Alma Ata and has been globally addressed since 1976 by the Traditional Medicine Program of WHO”. MEDICINAL PLANTS What is a medicinal plant?

A useful interpretation of the term ‘medicinal plant’ as used in its traditional sense has been given by Fellows (1991): “the term medicinal as applied to a plant indicates that it contains a substance(s) which modulate beneficially the physiology of sick mammals, and that it has been used by man for that purpose”. Fransworth and Soejarto (1991) referred to medicinal plants as: “all higher plants that have been alleged to have medicinal properties, i. e. effects that relate to health, or which have been proven to be useful as drugs by Western Standards, or which contain constituents that are used as drugs”.

What can be shown or proven, in modern Western scientific terms to modulate beneficially the physiology of sick mammals, that is, to have medicinal properties, has been at the centre of a division that has developed generally between the advocates of modern allopathic and traditional or herbal medicine. Today’s allopathic medicine is in fact highly dependent on a range of substances produced by plants, but the fact that clinically useful chemicals are now being obtained from plants that have not been classified before as having medicinal properties, is changing the parameters of what a medicinal plant can be said to be.

The result is potentially a great increase in the number of plants which can be regarded as medicinal. As far as we can tell, plants have been by far the most important source of medicines for all mankind throughout our evolutionary history. For the majority of the world’s population today this is still the case. In 1985, WHO estimated that 80% of the more than 4000 million inhabitants of the world rely chiefly on traditional medicines for their primary health care needs.

In modern China alone, some 800 million people are said to use around 5000 plants medically. The Chinese system of medicine which derives 80% of its medications from higher plants (Hussain 1991) is also popular in Asian countries such as Hong Kong, Japan, Korea and Malaysia. A similar situation exists in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal, where highly developed traditional systems of Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani are practiced, and all of these are mainly based on drugs derived from plants.

Taking these and other factors into account, such as similarly widespread traditional use of plants by the indigenous people of Africa and Latin America, Farnsworth and Soejarto have estimated 35-70,000 species have at one time or the other been used in some culture for medicinal purposes. The Uses of Medicinal Plants In most developed European countries (as in other parts of the world), the full picture of medicinal plant usageoverall has become somewhat complicated by the development of synthetic chemistry.

In U. K.for example, these developments helped to form certain attitudes within medical profession and pharmaceutical industries {which have only begun to change},which have themselves helped foster misunderstandings on the part of the general public as to our actual use of and need for substances produced by plants. An apt observation was made by Huxley 1984 when he described plants as ‘extraordinary chemical factories’. All plants produces chemical substances for a range of different purposes, and most of those whose structure is most complex are produced, it is thought, for self-defence.

Fellows (1991) notes: ‘The chemicals in today’s wild plants have, we believe, arisen in response to pressures from pathogens and predators, and reflect the end product of almost 300 million years of selection for what are essentially plant protection agents. All wild plants are potential sources of biologically active molecules’. These biologically active compounds, which help protect plants against predators and other damage, but which it is believed, are not directly essential to growth, are generally known as secondary chemical compounds or metabolites.

They include alkaloids and glycosides as well as fungicidal and bactericidal resins. Until World War II, roughly speaking, it was raw plant materials or active ingredients extracted from plants that formed the mainstay of medications used. Once it became possible to isolate and then copy (synthesize) in the laboratory the plant chemicals believed or known o be responsible for certain medical effects, and furthermore to sell these in the form of patented or brand-named products, a whole new industry was born.

Medicinal Plants in Allopathic Medicine At present time, substances from plants are used in the following main ways in modern medical treatment: ? Directly as pharmaceuticals – either as single purified drugs, for example, morphine (extracted from the opium poppy Papaver sommiferum) and vincristine (extracted from the rosy periwinkle Catharanthus roseus) or in advanced extract from often in admixtures with other ingredients, for example, oil of evening primrose Oenothera spp. Or senna extract from Cassia senna.

The latter category include the enormous range of plant extracts used in common medications such as cough and cold treatments and laxatives. ? As building blocks or starting materials for the production of semi-synthetic drugs, for example plant saponins which can be extracted and altered chemically to produce sapongenins for the manufacture of steroidal drugs. An enormous number of products are made by the chemical alteration of plant material. A problem (in terms of recognition of our reliance on the plant world) being that the end-product often appears, because of its name, quite unrelated to plants.

An example of this is Trimethoprim (a urinary antibacterial drug) made from 3,4,5, trimethoxybenzaldehyde, itself produced by the chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis of gallic acid , taken from the South American tree Caesalpinia spinosa (commonly known as ‘tara’ in Peru) (M. B. Burbage in litt. 1985) ? As blue prints for the manufacture of synthetic drugs of a similar structure, for example the plant alkaloid cocaine extracted from Erythroxylum coca which has provided the chemical structure for the synthesis of procaine and other related annaesthetics.

? As tools to help us understand physiological and pharmacological mechanisms, especially in drug development and testing. As Principe (1991) noted, ‘the inability of the pharmaceutical industry to synthesize commercially the vast majority of the plant-derived drugs currently in use’ and ‘of the 76 different chemical compounds used in prescriptions in 1973, only 7 can be commercially produce by synthesis: emetine, caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, pseudoephedrine, ephedrine and papaverine. As at then, important drugs such as morphine, codeine, atropine, digoxin and digitoxin cannot be commercially synthesized’.

With the new analytical techniques that are now available however, and encouraged by the commercial success of plant-derived drugs (such as vincristine and vinblastine), in the light of promising new trials on others such as taxol from Pacific yew Taxus brevifolia and with various plant compounds demonstrating an activity against the HIV virus, the last few years have seen a renewed interest in plants as sources of new commercial drugs. According to Fellows (1991), the search is now on for new active chemical groups in plants which may necessarily have been classified before as ‘medicinal’.

To date, fewer than five percent of the approximately 250,000 species of higher plants have been subject to any kind of chemical study. |The medicinal plants find application in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, agricultural and food industry. The use of the medicinal herbs for curing | |disease has been documented in history of all civilizations. Man in the pre-historic era was probably not aware about the health hazards | |associated with irrational therapy. With the onset of research in medicine, it was concluded that plants contain active principles, which are | |responsible, for curative action of the herbs.

| |Before onset of synthetic era, man was completely dependent on medicinal herbs for prevention and treatment of diseases. With introduction of | |scientific procedures the researchers, were able to understand about toxic principles present in the green flora. The scientists isolated | |active constituents of the medicinal herbs and after testing some were found to be therapeutically active. Aconitine, Atisine, Lobeline, | |Nicotine, Strychnine, Digoxin, Atropine, Morphine are some common examples.

| |The efficacy of some herbal products is beyond doubt, the most recent examples being Silybum marianum (silymarin), Artemisia annua | |(artemesinin) and Taxus baccata (taxol). On the other hand, randomized, controlled trials have proved the efficacy of some established | |remedies, for instance, Ginkgo biloba for tinnitus, Hypericum perforatum is a reputed remedy for depression. In Hypericum some researchers are | |of the view that hypericin is the active principle of the herb and some believe that hyperforin is responsible for antidepressant action of the| |herb.

| |Recently research has supported biological activities of some medicinal herbs. Cancer is such a segment where researchers are expecting new | |molecules from herbs that can provide us with tools for fighting this dreaded disease. Allamanda cathratica [allamandin], Elephatopus elatus | |[elephantpoin], Helenium autmnale [helenalin] Vernonia hymenlepis, Heliotropium indicum [Indicine-N-oxide], Daphne mezereum (mezerien) and | |Stereospermum suaveolans [laphacol] are medicinal plants that have shown significant tumor inhibiting effect. | |Diabetes mellitus is another area where a lot of research is going on.

Ajuga reptens (the active principle is said to potentiate effects of | |insulin), Galagea officinalis (galagine), Bougainvillea spectabilis (pinitol), Momordica charantia (chirantin), Gymnema sylvestre (gymnemic | |acid) are some medicinal herbs that have shown effectiveness in non-insulin dependent diabetes. Recently extract of Tecoma stans has shown | |potent anti diabetic activity. Alkaloid tecomonine is considered to be active principle of the herb. | |Arthritis is another potential disease where no satisfactory answer is present in modern medicine.

Commiphora mukul (guggulsterones), Boswellia| |serrata [boswellic acid], Withania somnifera (withanolides), Ruscus acueleatus (ruscogenin), Harpagophytum procumbens (harpagoside) are | |prominent plants with anti- arthritic activity. Harpagoside is a precious constituent as it has anti rheumatoid activity. Rest of all natural | |products has anti-inflammatory activity. | |Chrysanthemum parthenium traditionally known as feverfew has shown promising results in migraine, a disease that has eluded the researchers | |from centuries.

The herb contains sesquiterpenes lactones called parthenolides, which are the active principles of the herb. Hepatoprotective | |action of certain botanicals deserves attention. Sedum sarmentosum [sarmentosin], Schisandra chinensis [waweizichun and schisantherin] have | |shown their ability to lower raised liver enzymes in viral hepatitis. | |Croton sublyratus [plaunotol] has potent and wide spectrum anti peptic ulcer action. A number of plant derivatives have shown anti-Aids | |activity.

Ancistrocladus korupensis [michellamine-b], Caulophyllum langigerum [calanolide-a], Caulophyllum teymani [costatolide-a], Homalanthus| |nutans [prostratin], Conospermum sp [concurvone] are the medicinal herbs from African countries that are being employed in research for finding| |a suitable cure for Aids. | |The concept of antioxidants is fastly catching up and latest research has shown that a number of herbal derivatives have excellent antioxidant | |action. Bacopa monnieri contains ba cosides A and B and bacoside A is a strong antioxidant, which reduces several steps of free radical damage.

| |Coleus forskohlii [forskolin], Grape seed [proanthocyanidins], Camellia sinensis [polyphenols], Huperzia serrata [huperzine], Pinus maritima | |[Pycnogenol], Borago officinalis [gamma linoleic acid] and Vinca minor [Vinpocetine] are potential antioxidants. | |The plant is a biosynthetic laboratory, not only for chemical compounds, but also a multitude of compounds like glycosides, alkaloids etc. | |These exert physiological and therapeutic effect. The compounds that are responsible for medicinal property of the drug are usually secondary | |metabolites.

A systematic study of a crude drug embraces through consideration of primary and secondary metabolites derived as a result of | |plant metabolism. The plant material is subjected to phytochemical screening for the detection of various plant constituents. | |With onset of scientific research in herbals, it is becoming clearer that the medicinal herbs have a potential in today’s synthetic era, as | |numbers of medicines are becoming resistant. According to one estimate only 20% of the plant flora has been studied and 60%of synthetic | |medicines owe their origin to plants.

Ancient knowledge coupled with scientific principles can come to the forefront and provide us with | |powerful remedies to eradicate the diseases. | | | | | | | | | |MEDICINAL PLANTS IN HERBAL MEDICINES | |Any definition of the term ‘herbal medicine’ must be linked to an interpretation of the term ‘medicine’ itself. In modern Western allopathic | |medicine, generally speaking, treatment is reductionist, that is prescribed to deal with a particular symptom or individual disease once it has| |occurred, by the use of substances that can be said to be inimical to it.

| |In the longer established systems of traditional medicine (for example Chinese medicine) as in the alternative systems found also in European | |countries, herbal treatment is given as part of a comprehensive approach to preventative medicine, in which maladies are seen in the context of| |the body as a whole. As part of this approach, rather than prescribe individual (purified) drugs to deal with symptoms, a great many factors | |may be taken into consideration in trying to assess or prevent the cause.

Such treatment may involve the use of many different plants or | |substances, at different times, not to replace the body’s defense mechanisms but to stimulate them into action. | |

Herbal remedies differ from the highly purified pharmaceutical compounds in that they contain a complex variety of active inert ingredients. | |By using herbs in their raw or semi-processed form, herbal practitioners help to ensure that ancillary compounds, which are believed to enhance| |synergistic action, remain intact. Some herbalists even claim that the use of whole plants somehow captures a vital force which is necessary | |to ensure full efficacy.

| |To adherents of such holistic systems, or those simply disenchanted with Western allopathic medicine therefore, a medicinal plant or herb, may | |refer in its widest sense, to any plant believed or proven to promote well-being overall. This category can also include what might otherwise | |be labeled simply as foods or food plants and as Fuller has pointed out, ’in the view of most herbalists, there is little difference between | |regular intake of mild herbal remedies and the daily consumption of healthful food, both prevent sickness by strengthening the immune system | |response.

| |Within U. K. certainly, the term herbal remedy has come to be used very loosely to cover an enormous range of preparations not normally | |prescribed as part of allopathic practice from capsules containing pure plant powders ( referred to as the ‘totum’ in herbalists terms) to | |‘herbal teas’, now widely available in pharmacists, supermarkets and health food shops. Herbal teas may now account for the vast majority of | |those plants traded in Europe as medicinal.

| |During the period of major development of the pharmaceutical industry and its promotion of synthetic drugs (over the last 30 years or so) the | |term herbal medicine or remedy has acquire stigma which proponents on traditional medicine.

The efforts of bodies such as BHMA and their | |counterparts in other European countries (backed up by organizations like WHO and EEC) has led to the development of scientific standards for | |plant-based preparations aimed at distinguishing what are or may become licensed ‘phytomedicines’ from the ever growing volume of ‘herbal | |remedies’ (which may include products which make false claims or are even dangerous), in order to enhance the professional reputation and | |acceptance of herbal medicines as a whole. | |

For the public at large, such important distinctions and considerations (that is in terms of what is or is not a bona fide medicine) are | |perhaps as yet unclear.

What can be definitely noted however, is that while the pharmaceutical industries in the Western countries has been | |moving towards synthetic and biotechnology in their research, the consumers are a greater and greater interest in natural products, fuelled | |naturally by a growing awareness of the risks of using synthetic compounds, which works in tandem with growing concern about environmental | |degradation and the loss of physical and spiritual contact with the natural environment(Principe 1991). As Akerele (1991) observed: ‘in recent | |years, there has been a great surge of public interest in the use of herbs and plants’.

By some this has been viewed as a herbal renaissance. | |Comparing acceptance of medicinal herbs in the United States with Europe Fuller (1991) described ‘the western European herb market as among the| |most advanced, with herbs making up a significant source of over-the-counter remedies’. He adds: ‘the growth of the western European herb | |market is evidenced by the doubling of medicinal plant consumption there over the past decade. | |This interest has not, however, restricted itself to the realms of medicine only: ‘Overall, the trade in botanicals has increased following | |their increased used in the health food and cosmetics industries.

| | | |MONETARY VALUE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS | |Finally, this seminal would not have been complete if the monetary value or worth of medicinal plants is not observed as a vital importance of | |medicinal plants. From the knowledge of this study, it has been discovered that people now appreciate herbal remedies more than ever before | |because they have come to the conclusions that allopathic medicines approach have side effects, since it is artificially produced compared to | |phytomedicine which is naturally administered.

| |However, it was also discovered that: | |In Pakistan it is estimated that 80% of the people depends on plants to cure themselves. | |About 40% in China medicinal consumption is attributed to herbal medicines. | |In technologically advanced countries as the United States, it is estimated that 60% of the population use medicinal plants habitually to fight| |certain ailments. | |U. S. A. spent approximately $5billion on phytoceuticals (1998). | |In Japan, there is more demand of medicinal plants than of “official” medicines.

| |High percentage or Jordanians (~50%) use herbs as cures for common ailments on regular basis. | |Over 80% of world’s population (5. 3billion people) relies on plant-based medicines. | |Thailand-annual sale of herbal medicines is US$2. 5billion. | |Over 85% African population solely depends on medicinal plants to treat and cure ailments on basis | | | |From the above facts, one can conclude that medicinal plants are of great economic importance due to its trade value and availability of large | |consumers all over the world.

Therefore any one or nation(s) that ventures into medicinal plants trade will generate huge revenue for herself. | |As a result this, medicinal plants trade can be used to improve the economic standard, strength and value of a community, state and a country | |at large. | | | |Significances of Medicinal Plants to Human Being | |1. Many of the modern medicines are produced indirectly from medicinal plants, for example aspirin. | |2. Plants are directly used as medicines by a majority of cultures around the world, for example Chinese medicine and Indian medicine.

| |3. Many food crops have medicinal effects, for example garlic. | |4. Medicinal plants are resources of new drugs. It is estimated there are more than 250,000 flower plant species. | |5. Studying medicinal plants helps to understand plant toxicity and protect human and animals from natural poisons. | |6. Cultivation and preservation of medicinal plants protect biological diversity, for example metabolic engineering of plants. | |7. Medicinal plants serve as source of revenue generation for individuals and nations via internal and external trade.

| |© | | | | | |All Rights Reserved O Development Corporation – 2013- 2013 | |Website Design & Development By O | | LIST OF IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANTS AND THEIR USES | | | |NB: (Fam – Family, T – Tree, H – Herb, C – Climber, S- shrub) | | | |Plant | |Common name / Maturity period | |Botanical Name or Family | |Parts Used | |Average Price( Rs. / Kg ) | |Medicinal Use | | | |[pic] | |Amla ( T )After 4th year | |Emblica officinalis | |Fam – euphorbiaceac | |Fruit | |Rs 15 – 45/kg | |Vitamin – C, Cough , Diabetes, cold, Laxativ, hyper acidity.

| | | |[pic] | |Ashok ( T )10 years onward | |Saraca Asoca | |Fam : Caesalpinanceac | |Bark Flower | |Dry Bark Rs 125/kg | |Menstrual Pain, uterine, disorder, Deiabetes. | | | |[pic] | |Aswagandha ( H ), One year | |Withania Somnifera | |Fam: Solanaccac | |Root, Leafs | |Rs 140/ Kg | |Restorative Tonic, stress, nerves disorder, aphrodiasiac. | | | |[pic] | |Bael / Bilva (T)After 4-5 year | |Aegle marmelous | |Fam: Rutaccac | |Fruit, Bark | |Fruit – Rs 125 / kg | |Pulp – Rs 60 / Kg | |Diarrrhoea, Dysentry, Constipation.

| | | |[pic] | |Bhumi Amla ( H), with in one year | |Phyllanthous amarus | |Fam : euphorbiaccac | |Whole Plant | |Rs 40 / Kg | |Aenimic, jaundice, Dropsy. | | | |[pic] | |Brahmi ( H ) Indian penny worth/one year | |Bacopa,Monnieri | |Fam: Scrophulariaccac | |Whole plant | |Rs 20 per kg | |Nervous, Memory enhancer,mental disorder. | | | |[pic] | |Chiraita ( high altituted) with in one year ( H ) | |Swertia Chiraita | |Fam : Gentianaccac | |Whole Plant | |Rs 300-350 / per kg | |Skin Desease, Burning, censation, fever. | |

| |[pic] | |Gudmar / madhunasini, after Four year ( C ) | |Gymnema Sylvestre | |Fam: Asclepiadaccac | |Leaves | |Rs 50 -75 per kg | |Diabetes, hydrocil, Asthama. | | | |[pic] | |Guggul ( T)after 8 years | |Commiphora Wightii | |Fam: burseraccac | |Gum rasine | |Rs 80 – 100 per kg | |Rheuma tised, arthritis, paralysis, laxative. | | | |[pic] | |Guluchi / Giloe ( C )With in one year | |Tinospora CordifoliaFam | |Stem | |Rs 20 – 25 per kg | |Gout, Pile, general debility, fever, Jaundice. | | | |[pic] | |Calihari / panchanguliaGlori Lily Five years | |Gloriosa superba | |Fam: Liliaccac.

| |Seed, tuber | |Rs 60 | |Skin Desease, Labour pain, Abortion, General debility. | | | |[pic] | |Kalmegh/ Bhui neem ( H ) with in one year | |Andrographis PaniculataFam : scanthaccac | |Whole Plant | |Rs 12 – 20 | |Fever, weekness, release of gas. | | | |[pic] | |Long peeper / Pippali ( C ) after two to three years | |Peeper longum | |Fam : Piperaccac | |Fruit, Root | |Rs 100 – 150 per kg | |Root – 150 per kg | |Appetizer, enlarged spleen , Bronchities, Cold, antidote. | | | |[pic] | |Makoi ( H )Kakamachi/ With in one year | |Solanum nigrum | |Fam: Solanaccac | |Fruit/whole plant | |Rs 40 per kg.

| |Seed – 200 per kg | |Dropsy, General debility,Diuretic, anti dysenteric. | | | |[pic] | |Pashan Bheda / Pathar Chur ( H )One year | |Coleus barbatus | |Fam : Lamiaccac | |Root | |Rs 40-50 per kg | |Kidny stone, Calculus. | | | |[pic] | |Sandal Wood ( T )Thirty years onward | |Santalum Album | |Fam: santalinaccac | |Heart wood , oil | |Rs 350 per kg | |Skin disorder, Burning, sensation, Jaundice, Cough. | | | |[pic] | |Sarpa Gandha ( H )After 2 year | |Ranwolfia Serpentina | |Fam: apocynaccac | |Root | |Root – Rs 60 per kg | |Seed – Rs 300 per kg | |Hyper tension, insomnia. | |

| |[pic] | |Satavari ( C )After 2-3 year | |Asparagus Racemosus | |Family: liliaccac | |Tuber, root | |Rs 20 -50 per kg | |Enhance lactation, general weekness, fatigue, cough. | | | |[pic] | |Senna ( S )With in 1 year | |Casia augustifolia | |Fam: Liliaceae | |Dry Tubers | |Rs 500/kg seed | |Rs1200/kg dry | |Rheumatism, general debility tonic, aphrodisiac. | | | |[pic] | |Tulsi (perennial) Each 3 months | |Ocimum sanclum | |Fam: Lamiaccac | |Leaves/Seed | |Leaves Rs 10/kg | |Cough, Cold, bronchitis,expectorand. | | | |[pic] | |Vai Vidanka ( C ), 2nd year onward | |Embelia Ribes | |Fam: Myrsinaccac | |Root, Fruit, Leaves | |Rs 40-50 per kg.

| |Skin disease, Snake Bite, Helminthiasis. | | | |[pic] | |Pippermint ( h) Perennial | |Mentha pipertia | |Fam:Lamiaccac | |Leaves, Flower, Oil | |- | |Digestive, Pain killer. | | | |[pic] | |Henna/Mehdi ( S ) 1/25 years | |Lawsennia iermis | |Fam: lytharaceae | |Leaf,Flower, Seed | |L – 50 /kgPowder-Rs75 perkg | |Burning, Steam, Anti Imflamatary. | | | |[pic] | |Gritkumari ( H) 2nd-5th yr | |Aloe Verra | |Fam: Liliaceae | |Leaves | |Fresh L- Rs 5 kgJuice 90 Per Kg | |Laxative, Wound healing, Skin burns & care,Ulcer.

| | | |[pic] | |Sada Bahar ( H ) Periwinkle/Nyantara | |Vincea rosea/ catharanthusRoseus | |Fam :apocyanace | |Whole Plant | |R-Rs50 per kgL- Rs 25S- Rs 10 kg | |Leaukamia, Hypotensiv, Antispasmodic , Atidot. | | | |[pic] | |Vringraj ( H ) | |Eclipta alba | |Fam: Compositae | |Seed/whole | |Powder-Rs 60/kg | |Anti-inflamatory, Digestive, hairtonic. | | | |[pic] | |Swet chitrak | |Perennial ( h ) | |Plumbago Zeylanica | |Fam: Plumbaginaceae | |Root, Rootbar | |- | |Appetiser, Antibacterial, Aticacer. | | | |[pic] | |Rakta Chitrak ( H ) | |Plumb.

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Many of us are unfamiliar with the existing nontraditional health care practices. We may have heard about a certain health care practice that continues to cure some of the illnesses today. Some people still hold on to faith that these …

The Western hemisphere has long abandoned the used of the herbal medicines due to the advancement of technology and healthcare that is able to provide a single medicine that will cure illnesses. Many people, professional and lay individuals, do not …

Ayensu, E. S, and DeFilipps, R. A. , 1978. Endangered and Threatened Plants of the United States. Smithsonian Institution Press and World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC. Ayuvedaherbs. 2005. Importance of Medicinal plants. The article was retrieved from” http://ayuvedaherbs. wordpress. com/2005/12/” …

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