REM sleep

Using examples, give two strengths and two weaknesses of the sample used in your chosen study. This is a methodology question. Weaknesses such as number of participants trouble making generalisations, age group-naturally competitive(tajfel), milgram and zimbardo self selecting -good because they were more willing to participate-students weakness because they are used to obeying authority not true representation of wider society, none ever went to prison- homogenous grouping e. t. c. Suggest two other sample for your chosen study and say how you think these might affect the results

A more diverse sample-a more heterogenous sample-from different location, different races, backgrounds, age group- you can use two points from this if you don’t use the terms homogeneous and heterogeneous as they cover everything. One of the ethical issues that causes concern in the conduct of psychological investigations is that of deception. It is sometimes argued that the use of deception is an essential part of research, and that, without some form of deception, research would be impossible. 18931. Choose one of the core studies listed below and answer the following questions.

Rosenhan (sane in insane places) Milgram (obedience) Piliavin, Rodin and Piliavin (subway samaritans) (a) Describe how deception was used in your chosen study. [6] scroll up top to see the ethics for Rosenhan, for piliavin,rodin and piliavin 1) They went on the train as passengers when there true purpose was to conduct an experiment-this is deception to train crew. 2) They did not get permission to conduct an experiment on the train, 3) The persons who helped were not informed they were part of an experiment, 4) The persons who helped were observed without their knowledge.

For milgram you know by heart. (b) Give two reasons supporting the use of deception in your chosen study and two reasons against the use of deception in your chosen study. Go ahead give two reasons-one if they had known they would have reacted differently , this goes for all three-please elaborate using examples from the study. For the study to be carried out deception was necessary, please say why this was so. (c) Suggest one way in which your chosen study could have been conducted without the use of deception and say how this might affect the results. Go ahead suggest a way.

This question is asking for your opinion go ahead and give it. Two differences between the real life experiences of persons who experience an accident and the study conducted by Loftus and Palmer are as follows. 1) In real life persons who are reporting on accidents were physically present so they can make informed judgements. In the study the mode of witnessing made it less personal so they may not have been sure as to they are more likely to have doubts about what they saw. 2) An accident witnessed on film is similar to television films so it is less real to the subject.

A real life accident is witnessed first hand so it is more real to the witness. Depth cues are (hints, guides, cues) which provide information about the spatial relationships among objects (three dimensional) in a picture (two dimensional). Cross cultural studies are useful in helping us to understand if depth perception is learned or innate. This is so because if depth perception is found to be universal to all cultures then it is innate, whilst if it is found in some cultures and not others then it is learned. Autistic children in the Sally-Anne Test are unable to tell where Sally will look for her marble.

Leslie and Frith suggests that Autistic children do not have a theory of mind. This means that they cannot attribute belief other than their own to another person. In the case of the study they were unable to realize that Sally would look for the marble where she left it because they knew the marbles new location. One example of the subjects showing extreme tension was the experiencing of (laughing fits, uncontrollable seizures). One of these conflicts was the subjects knowing that despite causing great pain to another human being he was still continuing to inflict shock.

One of these conflicts was the subjects image of himself as someone not willing to inflict pain on another human being was being actively challenged by his actions. Two features of the prison simulation were ( They were stripped, deloused, made to stand alone and naked in the yard, given their uniform, and cell). The prisoners may have become depressed and may also have begun internalizing their role as prisoner. The researchers carried out the experiment outside of a lab so they could not control the situation as in the lab. The students were reluctant to carry out the drunk condition.

Samuel and Bryant altered the method used by Piaget to investigate conservation, by asking the question only once after the changes had been made instead of twice, before and after as in Piaget’s experiment. The results obtained by Samuel and Bryant suggest to us that the errors made by the children may have been as a consequence of the method used to test conservation and not because of an inability to conserve. The children in the experiment witnessed the violence without an adult present to put it in context as would happen when they were viewing television.

In viewing television a parent, relative or adult guardian is normally present to contextualise the information for the child. Secondly the children were in an unfamiliar surroundings while they normally view television in a familiar surroundings for example at home. Two sources of evidence used by Hodges and Tizard were an interview conducted with the childs mother and a questionnaire completed by the child’s school teacher. The first for example showed that the ex-institutional kids were less selective in choosing friends and the second showed that they had a greater likelihood of encountering difficulty with their peers.

Freud interprets Hans fear of horses as the expression of his suppressed desire for his mother. The boy could have been genuinely afraid of horses as a consequence of having been frightened by one of them and as such had developed a generalized fear of horses. The two factors in Schachter and Singer’s two factor theory of emotion are arousal and cognition. For arousal the subjects were injected with adrenalin and either not told or told of its effects. For cognition they were placed in situations which would provide a possible explanation for their arousal.

Dement and Kleitman chose to test their theory by observing subjects the patients in a lab to see if REM sleep coincided with periods of dreaming. Sleeping in a lab the subjects knew they were being observed and this could have impacted upon their normal sleep patterns. Also the subjects are in an unfamiliar environment and this could also impact upon their sleep patterns. Right-handed patients had trouble describing images presented to left visual field and reported seeing the images as a flash. The subjects were unable to respond verbally to images presented on the left of the visual field.

This would suggest that the hemispheres control different activities , for example language is controlled by the left hemisphere. The left visual field is controlled by the right hemisphere. This is why the right-handed subjects were unable to verbally identify objects presented to the left-visual field. Washoe was able to use arbitrary symbols and showed semanticity. Washoe demonstrated semanticity by being able to generate a sign such as open to different contexts other than the context in which she learnt the symbol.

She demonstrated the arbitary use of symbols for example Washoe was able to sign think-doctor for psychologist. Four factors which may have affected the performance of the army recruits are 1) Recent immigrants who had a poor grasp of English had to do a verbal test. Persons (African Americans) with limited education had to do a verbal test, 3) Persons unfamiliar with pencils had to use them even in the beta (picture test) and 4) Failures on the Alpha test were not reassigned to a more appropriate test (the beta).

Hraba and Grant were trying to measure racial preference, awareness and identification as well as the consequences of racial preference and identification. They measured this by replicating Clark and Clark’s doll test and by asking the children and their teachers the race of the child’s best friend. The requests by pseudo patients were generally met with by lack of response and attention. They were typically ignored. The pseudopatients felt depersonalized and powerless. Eve White’s personality was shown to be repressive while Eve Black’s was regressive.

Both had above average IQ’s. The phrasing of the question brought about a change in speed estimate as persons logically associate a word such as smashed with greater speed than contacted. The questions provided the subjects with information since they did not experience the accident first-hand. Both adults and children among the African tribal subjects studied had difficulty perceiving depth in the pictorial material. The groups studied had high numbers of two dimensional perceiver’s as opposed to three dimensional perceiver’s

If Psychologists find a cultural universal of behaviour, it tells us that the behaviour is a feature of all cultures. Four behaviours that can be used to identify Autism are 1)head banging, 2) rocking behaviour, 3) self biting and 4) An obsessive desire for sameness. Washoe was able to use arbitrary symbols and showed semanticity. Washoe demonstrated semanticity by being able to generate a sign such as open to different contexts other than the context in which she learnt the symbol. She demonstrated the arbitary use of symbols for example Washoe was able to sign think-doctor for psychologist.

Two ethical issues raised are observing the children unknown to their parents through a one-way mirror. The children, were deliberately irritated by the experimenters, (being denied access to toys). The children were intimidated to stay in a room in stage three of the experiment. The restored group tended to be less attached to their mothers. The restored group showed less affection for their parents. The restored group identified themselves less with their parents. The restored group had difficulty getting along with their siblings.

The mother who primarily bonds with the child had given them up at an early age, thereby breaking the bond. So they had trouble regaining the bond with the mother. The adopted group were making their initial bond with their mother. The parents had given them up so they felt some what betrayed by them (restored group). The adopted group were more likely to feel grateful to the persons who adopted them. The restored group did not identify with their parents because it was hard to model yourself off someone who should have been looking after you but instead rejected you.

The adopted group were more likely to model themselves off the parents because they felt closer and wanted to be like the persons who adopted them. The restored group felt some resentment towards their siblings who had never been given up. The adopted group having been in a situation where they had no family felt good to have brothers and sisters, (finally a family). Hans final fantasy about being married to his mother supported Freud’s Oedipus complex. His conversation with Hans provide support for his belief that children become interested in sexuality at an early stage of their development.

One of the aims of the study was to see if dream recall correlates with periods of REM. One of the aims of the study is to study was to see if their was a correlation between the estimate of dream length and the time in REM. One of the aims of the study was to see if the type of eye movement related to the content of the dream. The results showed that REM sleep is predominantly associated with dreaming. The results showed that the subjects were fairly accurate in their dream length estimates. The recall of dreams showed some relationship to the patterns of eye movement.

In the prison simulation by Haney, Banks and Zimbardo, the authors say that the prisoners were taken over by the role they were acting. Describe one piece of evidence that suggests that the prisoners were taken over by their role. …

Describe what each study tells us about how behaviour is learned or inherited. Milgram’s study tells us that our behaviour is strongly influenced by people in Authority. It shows that even if people don’t want to act in a certain way, …

One theory of the nature of why we sleep is that it is essential for health reasons, and sleep deprivation can seriously endanger our lives. Jouvet deprived cats from sleep (by placing them on a water lily above water; when …

The analysis of the adjusted recognition scores showed that there was no difference between the ignore and not ignore conditions beyond that attributable to sampling error. This clearly represents a failure to support the experimental hypothesis. The findings have also failed …

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