Psychology Questions

In the prison simulation by Haney, Banks and Zimbardo, the authors say that the prisoners were taken over by the role they were acting. Describe one piece of evidence that suggests that the prisoners were taken over by their role. For this question use the parole board example, their not leaving even though they were free to, their submitting to guards. Explain why this piece of evidence suggests that the prisoners were taken over by their role. For each answer you must speak of internalisation. The subjects internalised the role of prison, and prisoners have to go before a parole board when they are seeking early release.

Start off each answer like this (mind you this is only a suggested way of starting off the answer it is not the only way). One way in which psychologists carry out research is by gathering a great deal of data about one individual. This method is known as the case study. 18929. Choose one of the core studies listed below and answer the following questions. Freud (Little Hans) Thigpen and Cleckley (multiple personality disorder) Gardner and Gardner (Project Washoe) Describe how the case study method was used in your chosen study This question is asking you to describe what was done in the study.

The key thing to note here is case study. You need to work with a definition of case study as you answer the question. [ In case you have forgotten, a case study is the detailed study of an individual or group of individuals over a period of time with the intention of making generalisations to the wider population. A case study can be of a single individual. ] Once you have this definition in mind you can proceed to answer the question. The case study was conducted using interviews, indirect observation, self reporting and second person communication.

Freud interviewed Little Hans’ father. He asked him about his son’s experiences, as it related to his phobia. He questioned to determine the possible causes of this phobia. Freud during his therapy session also interviewed little Hans’ so as to gather information from him as to what was really responsible for his phobia. Indirect observation was used as Freud got information about little Hans’ from observations made by his father. His father for instance observed little Hans’ behaviour with his mother. He for example notes little Hans’ desire to get into bed with both he and his mother.

Self reporting comes from little Hans’ reporting of his dreams, for example the dream in which he dreamt that he received a new penis and a new bottom. Finally second person communication occurs when his father communicated via correspondence about Hans’. For Project washoe it would have been once direct observation participant observation You may be asking why both participation and direct observation. Well here is why, participant observation is one because the Gardeners were also a part of the study they as language trainers were participants. Direct observation because they observed Washoe for language acquisition.

Examples of particpant observation teaching signs to Washoe. You can say interview but be careful. You have to qualify it, The Gardner’s spoke to Washoe to see if she had acquired language, this was an oral interview to see how well she used language. If you qualify it like that you will be okay. Thigpen and Cleckley interviews, psychometric testing, self reporting measures, second hand observation. Interviews the therapy session was an interview. Psychometric testing remember inkblot, iq test, and memory tests. Self report for this we again qualify it, hypnosis was used to gather information from eve about herself.

She was reporting on herself. Looked at in this way hypnosis is a self reporting measure. You have to look at it in that way for it to be a self reporting measure. Simply put you have to qualify it as a self reporting measure. Remember her family was spoken to. Using examples, give two strengths and two weaknesses of the case study as used in your chosen study Look at strengths and weaknesses of the points that you gave for how a case study was conducted. Freud-indirect observation weakness, father may have left out information that would otherwise have been valuable please give an example where this could have occurred from the study.

For self report you could use it as a strength, little hans’ dreams provided insight into what was going on in his head. [ note if you did not have four points, you could just use the strength and the limitation of the same one. ] Only so much can be captured using second hand communication-it is limiting-give an example from the study where this could have occurred, I underlined that to say it may not have been so you are merely saying where it was likely to have occurred. Interview strength you can get detailed information from an individual about him/herself, in this instance from little Hans’.

The same way in which we referred to the strengths and weaknesses here, do it for the other two studies, using the points we mentioned for how the case study was conducted. Suggest one alternative way your study could have been investigated and say how you think this might affect the results For Freud’s studies he could have been compared in comparison to other persons with phobia. This could impact upon the study by making it better suitable for generalisation. Note you will have to elaborate further on it, this is merely the bare bones guide-to the point.

For Washoe you could say by using other persons to sign with Washoe, or by not allowing the Gardners to teach washoe sign language, but to just observe by so doing the likelihood of subjectivity would have been reduced. As I said before elaborate using examples from the study as this is the bare bones of the point. For thigpen and cleckley have persons other than her therapist observe her for multiple personality, as the therapists because of their relationship to her may have become subjective. The same instruction applies as it did for the previous studies.

Psychological research is often carried out on a limited number of people. The sample chosen will have an effect on the results of the research 18930. Choose one of the core studies listed below and answer the following questions Haney, Banks and Zimbardo (prison simulation) Milgram (obedience) Tajfel (intergroup discrimination) Describe how participants were selected in your chosen study This is straight forward just say how they had been selected, newspaper add e. t. c. This question is designed to see how well you remember the study.

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