The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system, which makes and stores a fluid that nourishes sperm. The prostate gland is about the size of a walnut, and surrounds the upper part of the urethra, the tube that empties urine from the bladder. If the prostate gland grows too large, the flow of urine can be slowed or stopped. Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men in the United States (other than skin cancer), and accounts for more than one-quarter of all men diagnosed with cancer each year. Some prostate cancers grow very slowly and may not cause problems for years.
Common Misconceptions about Prostate Cancer •Prostate cancer is an old man’s disease. •If you don’t have any symptoms, you don’t have prostate cancer. •Prostate cancer is a slow growing cancer I don’t need to worry about. •You can pass your cancer to others. Causes and Population Affected by Prostate Cancer All men are at risk for developing prostate cancer. About one man in six will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime, but only one man in 36 will die of this disease. About 80 percent of men who reach age 80 have prostate cancer cells in their prostate.
The causes of prostate cancer are not well understood. Besides being male, there are other factors, such as age, race, and family history that may contribute to the risk. •Age — The greatest risk factor for prostate cancer is age. In the United States, prostate cancer is found mainly in men over age 55. •Race — Prostate cancer occurs about 60% more often in African-American men than in white American men. It is less common in Asian and Native American men. •Family history of prostate cancer — The risk for developing prostate cancer is higher if a close relative like father or brother has had the disease.
•Diet and dietary factors — A diet high in animal fat may increase the risk of prostate cancer and a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk. Stages of Prostate Cancer •Stage I cancer is found only in the prostate and usually grows slowly. •Stage II cancer involves more than one part of the prostate. •Stage III cancer has spread beyond the outer layer of the prostate into nearby tissue. •Stage IV cancer has spread to other areas of the body such as the bladder, bone, liver, lungs. Symptoms of Prostate Cancer Early prostate cancer often does not cause symptoms.
But prostate cancer can cause any of these problems: •A need to urinate frequently, especially at night •Difficulty starting urination or holding back urine •Inability to urinate •Weak or interrupted flow of urine •Painful or burning urination •Blood in urine A man who has symptoms like these should see his doctor or urologist. Methods of Treatment Treatment for prostate cancer depends on the stage of the disease and the grade of the tumor. Once the decision is made to treat prostate cancer, your doctor will decide the type of treatment.
Prostate cancer can be managed in a number of ways: •Watchful Waiting may be suggested for some men who have prostate cancer that is found at an early stage and appears to be slow growing. •Surgery is a common treatment for early stage prostate cancer. The doctor may remove all of the prostate (radical prostatectomy) or only part of it. •Radiation therapy (called radiotherapy) uses high-energy x-rays to kill cancer cells. Like surgery, radiation therapy is local therapy and it can affect cancer cells only in the treated area.
•Hormonal therapy deprives cancer cells from getting the male hormones they need to grow. It is called systemic therapy because it can affect cancer cells throughout the body. •Chemotherapy is also a useful treatment in most cases. Cautions to Prevention The exact cause of prostate cancer is not known, so at this time it is not possible to prevent most cases of the disease. Many risk factors such as age, race, and family history cannot be controlled. But there are some things we can do that might lower our risk of prostate cancer.
?Eat at least 2? cups of a wide variety of vegetables and fruits each day. ?Be physically active. ?Stay at a healthy weight. ?Heavy coffee drinking may prevent cancer.
Works Cited ?http://www. webmd. com/prostate-cancer/guide/prostate-cancer-risk-factors ? http://health. nytimes. com/health/guides/disease/prostate-cancer/prognosis. html ? http://www. cancer. org/cancer/prostatecancer/detailedguide/prostate-cancer-prevention ? http://www. medicalnewstoday. com/articles/150086. php Pictures •https://www. google. com/search? q=prostate&source.