Pharmacokinetics – concentration

The ultimate evaluation of dosage forms or delivery system is in: a. disintegration time c. clinical effectiveness b. thickness d. taste Factor that contributes to patient’s difference in drug concentration in the body, except: a. body weight c. age b. obesity d. climate A rate limiting factor in the dissolution of drugs is: a. disintegration of the tablet c. content uniformity b. thickness d. local effect.

The effect of reduced particle size of a drug is: a. increased absorption c. increased hardness b. increased disintegration d. all of them A cause of patient to patient variability of time course of the drug in the plasma is: a. disease c. genetic in origin b. concomitant drug therapy d. all of the above Dissolution rate tests can be used to predict bioavailability if: a. dissolved drug remains free in the GIT b.

Dissolved drug is decomposed in the GIT c. drug is hydrolyzed in the GIT d. all of them Elimination half-life of a drug is the time in hours needed to reduce drug concentration to: a. half of the parent drug c. all or taken dose b. one fourth of the initial dose d. a & b Tmax means: a. time of great solubility of the drug c. time of peak concentration b. peak height concentration d. AUC values D D D.

B D 10. To generally increase the solubility of a poorly soluble drug in an aqueous medium, the process is: a. complexation c. prepare into a derivative b. adsorption d. a & c 11. The ionization constant of a drug is important in bioavailability since it determines the following, except: a. its aqueous solubility c. pH of the medium b. dissolution rate d. extent of protein binding 12.

The difference in bioavailability of a drug product of the same therapeutic agent is due to: a. difference in formulation ingredients c. difference in methods of manufacture b. difference in packaging d.a & c 13. Which of the crystal forms give the best dissolution rate? a. meta-stable polymorph c. stable polymorph b. amorphous d. a and b 14.

The termination of action of a drug is determined by: a. excretion of intact active molecule b. excretion of active molecule c. tissue redistribution d. a & c D D 15. Pharmaceutical equivalents are drug products that contain: a. identical amounts of active drugs b. identical amounts of inactive ingredients c. identical amounts of excipients d. all of the above 16.

The purpose of biotransformation reaction is: a. deactivate the drug b.preserve the drug from destruction c. promote elimination of inactive drug d. a & c D 17. The advantage of sublingual/buccal administration is: www. brex. us 180 BIOPHARMACEUTICS a. no occurrence of gastrointestinal degradation b. drug directly in the circulation c. not pass to the liver d. a & c B C D C C B C C D A D 18. The integral of the drug level over time from zero to infinity is: a. biologic half-life c. bioavailability b. area under the curve d. biopharmaceutics 19.

The rate and extent at which the drug appears in the bloodstream is known as: a. biopharmaceutics c. bioavailability b. area under the curve d. biologic half-life 20. An inactive or much less active substance which is transformed to active drug in the body is: a. dosage form c. asp b. drug product d. prodrug 21.

A site in the biophase to which drug molecules can be found is: a. fluid compartment c. receptor b. unit membrane d. none of the above 22. A branch of science which deals with physical and chemical properties of drug substance, the dosage form, and the biological effectiveness of a drug product upon administration is: a. pharmacology c. biopharmaceutics b. pharmacokinetics d. pharmacy 23.

The dose size required maintaining effectiveness or therapeutic concentration according to dosage regimen is: a. priming dose c. loading dose b. maintenance dose d. any of the above 24. The ability of the substance to exist in different crystalline forms is: a. amphoterism c. polymorphism b. sating in d. precipitation 25. Differences in bioavailability are most frequently observed with drugs are administered by which of the ff. routes? a. subcutaneous c. oral b. intravenous d. sublingual 26. A drug can exert its pharmacologic effect only when it is: a. protein bound c. free drug b. protein unbound d. b & c 27.

Which of the following factors delays transit time? a. increasing viscosity c. water b. liquid diet d. b & c 28. The principal site of drug metabolism is: a. kidney b. muscle tissue c. gut wall d. liver B A C D B 29. The mechanism for drug excretion via the kidney is: a. facilitated diffusion c. pinocystosis b. glomerular filtration d. ion transport 30. The major plasma protein involved in the distribution of weak acids is: a. albumin c. glycine b. glycoprotein d. gelatin 31. For faster absorption, what type of diluent or filler is needed if the drug is hydrophobic? a. hydrophilic c. amphilic b. water repellant d. b & c 32.

The route of administration which will be by-pass the GIT degradation and hepatic metabolism is: a. intravenous injection c. buccal b. sublingual d. b & c 33. A branch of science which deals with the changes of drug concentration and its metabolites in the human or animal body after administration is: a. bioavailability c. biopharmaceutics www. brex. us 181 BIOPHARMACEUTICS b. pharmacokinetics d. a & b A B 34. The first step which determines the onset of action, rate of absorption, availability is: a. liberation c. excretion b. distribution d. absorption 35.

Liberation is a process controlled by: a. age of the patient b. characteristic of the drug c. both a & b d. none of the above D A C C C D C B C D 36. Which is the following factors affect the dissolution in the lipid membrane of the lipid soluble unionized fluid compartment: a. pH c. lipid/water partition coefficient b. pKa d. all of the above 37. Those multiple source drug products that contains identical amount o the identical active ingredients in identical dose forms are called: a. chemical equivalents d. pharmaceutical alternates b. biological equivalents e. therapeutic alternates c. therapeutic equivalents 38.

When considering drug transport, ‘a passive transport process’ implies that: a. all of the drug will pass from one compartment to another b. the process requires energy c. The net transfer of drug is from an area of high concentration to an area low concentration d. the net transfer of drug is from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration 39.

The prerequisites of the binding of a drug to a receptor are as follows, EXCEPT: a. chemical reactivity c. absence of functional group b. electronic distribution d. none if the above 40. The following compounds are absorbed via convective transport EXCEPT: a. ions of opposite charge of pore lining b. ionized sulfonamides c. weak organic acids d.

none of the above 41. The following mechanism of absorption required the presence of drug in aqueous solution, EXCEPT: a. passive diffusion c. facilitated transport b. convective transport d. pinocyctosis 42. Reabsorption of the drugs and its metabolite occurs in the a. kidney c. both a & b b. intestines d. none of the above 43. A type of transport whereby drug molecules dissolved in aqueous medium at the absorption site moves along with the solvent through the pore: a. active transport c. convective transpor b. ion-pair transport d. facilitated transport 44.

When a substance is half-ionized and half-nonionized at a certain pH, its pKa is: a. greater than pH c. equal to pH b. less than the pH d. negligible as compared to pH 45. The Noyes-Whitney equation determines: a. particle size measurement b. actual drug solubility c. dissolution constant d. dissolution rate D D D 46.

Studies of bioavailability are generally not required when: a. drug is intended solely for IV use b. the drug is for local therapeutic use c. the drug is an oral product not required to be absorbed d. all of the above 47. Gastric emptying is slowed down by the following except: a. a vigorous exercise c. hot meals b. fatty foods d. hunger 48.

The ratio of the concentration of a drug in two immiscible phases is known as the: a. concentration ratio c. partial miscibility b. miscibility ratio d. lipid/water partition co-efficient www. brex. us 182 BIOPHARMACEUTICS C A D D C B A 49. The metabolism of drugs generally results in: a. less acidic cpds. b. more acidic cpds c. more polar cpds d. cpds. Having a higher oil/water partition coefficient 50.

Drugs that poorly lipid soluble or extensively ionized at the pH of the blood generally a. penetrate the CNS very slowly and may essentially be eliminated from the body before a significant concentration in the CNS is reached b. achieve adequate CNS concentration only if given IV c. must be metabolized to a more polar form before they can gain d. access to the CNS 51. Which of the following events modify drug absorption? a. physiological constituent of digestion b. drug interaction c. certain disease state d. all of the above 52.

The following statements are true EXCEPT: a. amorphous form is more soluble that of the crystalline form b. the amorphous from has a higher dissolution rate than the crystalline form c. the crystalline form requires a higher amount of energy to free a molecule of the drug from it than does the amorphous form d. the amorphous form requires a higher amount of energy to free a drug molecule from it than does the crystalline form 53.

The displacement of drug from protein binding site causes: a. decrease in the intensity of pharmacological response b. decrease in the intensity of side effects c. toxicity d. all of the above 54. These are addition compounds of drug and organic solvents: a. hydrates c. polymorphous b. solvates d. none of the above 55. The Vd of drug is related to: a. the amount f drug in the body b. the volume of the liver c. the volume of the heart d. the volume of the small intestine e.  the volume of the large intestine B 56.

The major pathway of excretion a. via the liver b. via the kidney c. via the circulation system d. via the large intestines A B C C 57. Which of the following propertied of surfactants tend to increase the rate of dissolution? a. surface tension lowering effect b. increased surface tension c. absence of peptizing action d. all of the above 58.

The rate of diffusion of drug across biological membranes is most commonly: a. independent on the concentration gradient b. directly proportional to the concentration gradient c. dependent on the availability of carrier substrate d. dependent on the route of administration 59.

In general, various oral dosage forms can be ranked in which of the following expected order of availability (fastest to slowest) a. aqueous capsule, tablet, powder, coated tablet, suspension b. capsule, tablet, coated tablet, powder, suspension, aqueous, solution c. aqueous solution, suspension, powder, capsule, tablet, coated tablet d. suspension, aqueous solution, powder, capsule, coated tablet, tablet 60.

The rectal route of administration may be preferred over the oral route for some drug because: a. the drug does not have to be absorbed b. absorption is predictable and complete c. a portion of the absorbed drug does not pass through the liver before entering the systemic circulation www. brex. us 183 BIOPHARMACEUTICS d. the dissolution process is involved A 61.

Renal clearance depends on: a. urinary pH b. glomerural filtration c. absorption d. distribution D A A A A B C A D D B A A D B 62. Application of clinical pharmacokinetics as to management of the individual patient is the: a. safety c. therapeutic b. overdosage d. a & c 63.

The time in hours necessary to reduce the drug concentration in the blood, the plasma, or serum to half its original concentration after equilibrium is reaced: a. biological half-life c. bioavailability b. area under the curve d. a & b 64. The breakdown of ingested foreign compounds to simpler structures: a. catabolism c. homeostasis b. anabolism d. none of the above 65.

If the extent and rate of absorption is similar to the standard drug, it has achieved: a. bioequivalence of a drug c. pharmaceutical alternative product b. pharmaceutical equivalence d. a &b 66. The magnitude of bile production depends on: a. type of food c. the enzyme activity b. the amount of bile emptied d. all of the above 67.

Biotransformation of a drug takes place in the liver in the presence of: from the body c. substance destroyed in the b. enzymes which act as catalysts d. a & c 68. Due to their anatomical structure, the organ that is considered as the most important site of drug absorption is: a. large intestine c. small intestine b. stomach d. mucous membrane of the mouth 69.

Biliary excretion principle: a. through the bile duct into the duodenum b. major portion of the bile is excreted c. as metabolite d. any of the above 70. Factor determining the biological activity of the drug: a. formulation of the dosage form c. dose b. individual d. all of the above 71.

Factor affecting gastric emptying time of a drug: a. age of the person c. body posture b. time of the day d. all of them 72. The hyphotetical plasma volume in mL of the unmetabolized drug which is cleared in one minute via the kidney: a. volume of distribution c. total clearance b. renal clearance d. area under the curve 73. The process that determines absolute bioavailability are the first pass effect and: a. absorption c. distribution b. liberation d. metabolism 74. Factor affecting difference between loading and maintenance dose: a. half-life of a drug c. adverse effect b. effectiveness of the dose d. b & c 75.

A relative bioavailability study is necessary when there is: a. a change in gelenic of the dru b. a change in the method of manufacture c. a change in the means of preservation d. all of the above 76. In organs and tissues that are well perfused: www. brex. us a. distribution is lower b. distribution is faster c. distribution rate is negligible d. none of the above 184 BIOPHARMACEUTICS D A D A D D D A B A D B A B 77. The following pathological state influences the volume of distribution EXCEPT: a. renal disease c. cardiac insufficiency b. hepatic disease d. vertigo 78.

The volume of distribution of a drug is: a.mathematical relationship between the total amount of drug in body and the concentration of drug in the blood b. a measure of an individual’s blood volume c. an expression of total body volume d. a measure of the individual fluid volume 79. The biologic half-life of many drugs is often prolonged in new born infants because of: a. a higher decrease of protein binding b. microsomal enzyme induction c. more complete absorption of drugs d. incompletely developed enzyme system 80.

Drugs are usually released much more slowly from fat because: a. fat has relatively limited blood supply b. drugs are fat bound that plasma bound c.

fat-bound-drugs bind to itself more d. all of the above 81. Which of the following factos increase the rate if gastric emptying: a. fats c. anticholinergic b. increasing viscosity d. none of the above 82. Possible approaches to measure bioavailability: a. blood level data c. clinical data b. urinary excretion data d. all of the above 83. The force of attraction which binds drugs to albumin: a. Van der Waal’s c. hydrogen bond b. hydrophobic bond d. all of the above 84.

The metabolism and/or the elimination of a drug by gastrointestinal and hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme which can occur after oral administration of a drug: a. first pass effect c. hepatic clearance b. biliary recycling d. BUN 85.

The administration of the same dose of active ingredient in different Galenic forms: a. always leads to the same therapeutic effect b. does not necessarily lead to the same therapeutic effect c. always lead to different therapeutic effect d. none of the above 86. The theory which states that the cell membrane is made up of a bi-lipid layer and fluid protein molecules interspersed between the 2 layers of lipid: a. fluid-mosaic d. nicholson b. Monsanto e. none of the above c. Davidson 87.

Cumulative urinary excretion is often used in the pharmacokinetic and clinical studies in man and animals to learn about the disposition of the drug and to determine the following: a. Ka c. % of drug absorbed b. fraction of drug absorbed d. all of the above 88. Is the loss of drug from the central compartment due to transfer into other compartments and/or elimination or metabolism: a. dosage regimen d. creatinine clearance b. disposition e. circadian rhythm c. depot phase 89.

An entity which can be described by a definite volume and a concentration of drug contained in that volume: a. compartment c. receptor b. serum level d. bloodstream 90. A cell or a cell component where the final interaction between drug and receptor takes place: a. receptor c. unit membrane www. brex. us 185 BIOPHARMACEUTICS b. biophase d. muscle A C A A C A C D C C C B A C 91.

Drugs that are absorbed in the GIT are generally: a. absorbed into the portal circulation and pass through the liver before entering the general circulation b. filtered from the bloody by the kidney, then reabsorbed into the general circulation c. not affected by the liver enzymes d. stored in the liver 92.

The speed of blood perfusion in an organ, usually expressed in mL/100 g organ weight/min. a. accumulation c. blood flow rate b. bioavailability d. absorption 93. Drugs in which the pharmacological action depends directly on the chemical structure of the drug: a. structure specific drugs c. drug agonist b. structure non-specific drugs d. none of the above 94. Phosporous poison reacting with cupric sulfate in the intestines (so as to prevent the absorption of the poison ) is an example of _____antagonism. a. chemical c. non-equilibrium b. competitive d. none of the above 95.

The ratio of creatinine excreted in urine to the concentration of creatinine In plasma: a. creatinine concentration c. creatinine clearance b. creatinine excretion d. renal clearance 96. If drug A is more lipophilic than drug B, then a. drug A will be better distributed that drug B b. drug B will be better distributed that drug A c. drug agonist d. none of the above 97. Drugs of low solubility may be brought into solution by the use of: a. solvent c. surfactants b. vehicle d. all of the above 98.

The LADME system is employed in: a. the development of new active compounds b. the determination of effective dose sizes c. the adjustment of dosage regimen d. all of the above 99. A type of antagonism whereby the agonist and the antagonist bind to different receptor and have opposite pharmacologic actions: a. partial antagonism c. non-competitive antagonism b. non-equilibrium antagonism d. competitive antagonism 100.

A type of antagonism whereby the antagonist formsirreversible receptor binding: a. partial antagonism c. non-equilibrium antagonism b. non-competitive antagonism d. competitive antagonism 101. Is the hyphotetical volume of distribution in mL of the unmetabolized drug which is cleared per unit time by any pathway of drug removal: a. diffusion layer d. clinical pharmacokinetics b. diurnal variation e. none of the above c.

Clearance 102. Obtained when the drug product is administered at the site where the pharmacological response is desired and when the drug released from the acts by adsorption to the skin or mucosa or penetrates into the skin or mucosa, but does not enter the systemic circulation or lymphatic system. a. systemic effect c. mean transit time b. local effect d. micro constants 103.

Tissue distribution of drugs is highly dependent on a. organ perfusion c. both a & b b. type of dosage form d. none of the above 104.

Maintenance of a steady state which characterized the interval environment of the healthy organism: www. brex. us 186 BIOPHARMACEUTICS a. steady state c. homeostasis b. depot phase d. maintenance dose A B D D D B E D B A 105.

An entity which can be described by a definite volume and a concentration of drug obtained in that volume a. compartment c. receptor b. serum level d. none of these 106. Membrane potential is due to the: a. adsorption of protein to the outside of the lipid layer b. different distribution of ions in the extracellular and intracellular fluid c. both a & b d. pH of the medium 107.

The cell membrane is capable of forming vesicles which may engulf drug substances outside the cell membrane to transport the drug (via the engulfed drug) into the compartment: a. ion-pair d. pinocytosis b. passive diffusion e. active transport c. convective transport 108. In the diffusion controlled system, the initial rate of dissolution is directly proportional to the: a. pKa c. quantity of free acid present b. pH d. solubility of the drug in the dissolution medium 109.

Refers to a change of one or more of the pharmacokinetic parameters during absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion by over-loading of processes due to increased dose sizes: a. nonlinear kinetics d. both a & c b. linear kinetics e. both b & c c. saturation kinetics 110.

The concentration of the ionic moiety of weak acids increases with: a. decreasing pH of aqueous solution c. increasing pOH of aqueous solution b. increasing pH of aqueous solution d. all of the above 111. Which of the following drugs is not listed as a candidate for routine therapeutic drug monitoring programs? a. theophylline d. digoxin b. aminoglycosides e. penicillin c. phenytoin 112.

The ff. are the mechanism by which drugs containing sorption promoters penetrate the skin a.decrease viscosity of the medium b. chelation of intercellular groups c. widening of either lipid or aqueous phase or both phases found in the intercellular matrix d. all of the above 113.

Type of antagonism which is dependent on concentration (of either agonist antagonist or both) and this antagonism is reversible: a. chemical d. non-equilibrium b. competitive e. partial c. non-competitive 114. Structural nonspecific drugs act by a. physicochemical processes b. physical processes c. biochemical processes d. none of the above D C 115.

The ff. characterize transport of a drug solution across a membrane by passive diffusion except: a.membrane thickness c. partition coefficient b. volume of outside compartment d. membrane length 116. The physical barrier to transport in the body: a. carrier molecule b. inactive complex c. unit membrane d. any of the above choices e. none of the above A A 117. That portion of a prolonged release dosage form which liberates the drug From the form at a slower rate that its unrestricted absorption rate: a. depot phase d. all of the above b. release phase e. none of the choices c. dissolve phase 118.

The determination and recording of drug concentrations during the course of therapy in order to adjust, if necessary, the dosage regimen:www. brex. us 187 BIOPHARMACEUTICS a. monitoring b. patient charting c. metabolizing d. all of the above E A B A D B B D D C D D 119. The ff. are the characteristics of active transport, except : a. against a concentration gradient d. all of the above b. follows saturation kinetics e. none of the above c. carrier mediated 120. When active transport system become saturated, the rate process will be a. zero order c. first order b. pseudo-zero order d. pseudo-first order 121.

A drug which possesses little or does not possess intrinsic activity: a. agonist d. toxins b. antagonist e. none of the above c. non specific drugs 122. Plasma protein binding is of significant influence in the distribution equilibrium a. the drug is polar c. the drug is oil soluble b. the drug is nonpolar d. all of the above 123. A type of absorption mechanism which requires the expenditure of ATP a. convective transport c. ion-pair transport b. pinocytosis d. active transport 124. The biosynthesis of more complex compounds a. catabolism c. homeostasis b. anabolism d. none of the above 125.

The value of particle size reduction to enhance drug absorption is limited to the situation in which the: a. absorption process occurs by active transportb. absorption process is rate limited by the dissolution of the drug in the GI c. drug is very soluble d. drug is very potent 126. Gastric emptying is slowed by all of the following, EXCEPT: a. vigorous exercise d. hunger b. fatty food e. emotional stress c. hot meals 127. Membranes are responsible for which of the following processes a. uptake of liquid material c. extrusion of waste materials b. uptake of solid material d. all of the above 128.

A theory which states that effectiveness lasts as long as the receptor is occupied a. hypothesis of Paton c. hypothesis of Ariens & Stephenson b.lock & key hypothesis d. hypothesis of clark 129. The systematized dosage schedule for therapy a. dose size c. dosage form b. loading dose d. dosage regimen 130. Example of sorption promoters: a. surfactants b. chelating agents c. viscosity-decreasing agents/thinners d. all of the above C C A 131.

This pharmacokinetic parameter is representative of the amount of drug absorbed: a. T1/2 d. Kel b. T90 e. Vd c. AUC 132. A term defined as the combination of a drug molecule with a receptor a. antagonism c. affinity b. intrinsic activity d. none of the above 133.

The primary proof of a drug’s availability is:www. brex. us a. clinical efficacy b. production of high blood levels c. production of high urine levels d. appearance of metabolites in urine e. appearance of metabolites in blood 188 BIOPHARMACEUTICS C 134. These are formed when a substance is capable of forming channels or cages which can take in another substance into the intraspace of the structure: a. salting in b. salting out c. clathrate d. solid-in-solid solution complex e. none of the above D C 135.

The final elimination from the body’s systemic circulation via the kidney into the urine via bile, and saliva into intestines and into feces, via sweat, via skin, via milk: a. metabolism c. absorption b. distribution d. excretion 136. Lipid/water partition coefficient permits: a. convective transport b. active transport c. passive transport d. ion-pair transport C 137.

Salts of electrolytes: a. higher solubility b. more rapid dissolution rate c. both d. none of the above C E B B D B B 138. Reasons for chemical variations: a. change the structure of the active compound in order to increase pharmacologic response b. maintain the basic structure but change solubility by the formation of either salts, esters, ethers, or complexes c. both a & b d. none of the above 139.

Factors affecting biological performance of drugs: a. viscosity d. adsorption b. polymorphism e. all of the above c. solubilizing agents 140. Is the phenomenon observed if the rate of absorption is slower than the rate of elimination, or one of the distribution rate is slower than the rate elimination: a. feathering d. dose dumping b. flip-flop model e. none of the above c. residual 141.

Mechanism of absorption of drugs in order of their importance: a. active transport-passive diffusion-convective transport b. passive diffusion-convective transport-active transport c.convective transport-active transport-passive diffusion 142.

The distribution of law of true partition coefficient is exact only for ideal solution under the following conditions: a. when the two liquid phases are completely immiscible b. when the solute neither associates nor dissociate in either phase c. when the solute concentration is relatively low d. all of the above 143. A change of pH in the aqueous phase alters the_______ of electrolytes a. degree of ionization c. degree of acidification b. degree of dissociation d. degree of purification 144.

Sodium pump is a special type of: a. convective transport transport c. passive transport d. ion-pair transport A A D 145. The capacity of the body to eliminate the drug after it has reached the general circulation is reflected by: a. total clearance c. AUV b. biliary recycling d. volume of distribution 146. A dosage form for which the drug release characteristics of time course and/or drug release location are chosen to accomplish therapeutic or convenience objectives: a. modified release dosage forms c. conventional dosage forms b. sustained release dosage forms d. all of the above 147.

Factors affecting pharmacokinetic variability: a. dosage form c. particle size b. viscosity d. all of the above www. brex. us 189 BIOPHARMACEUTICS D C C D C A D B A B B D A C 148. Biliary recycling is influenced by: a. rate of excretion of drug into the bile b. rate of loss of drug with feces c. type of food intake d. all of the above 149.

What is the specific organ of the animal used for In vivo test of active transport mechanism? a. duodenum c. ileum b. ascending colon d. transverse colon 150. The ratio of the drug concentration in the lipid phase over the concentration of the drug in the aqueous phase is equal to the: a. APC c. partition coefficient b. TPC d. none of the above 151.

The sum of all the chemical reactions for biotransformation of endogenous and exogenous substances which take place in the living cell: a. excretion c. elimination b. absorption d. metabolism 152. If the drug permeates through the capillary walls and enter the blood stream: a. adsorption d. sorption b. permeation e. all of the above c. absorption 153. Facilitated transport is similar to active transport in that it: a. is carrier mediated d. none of the above b. utilizes ATP e. all of the above c. is against a concentration gradient 154.

The lipid phase which is usually employed in the determination of apparent partition coefficient: a.water c. cotton seed oil b. corn oil d. octanol 155. A property of drug which has an affinity and generates an impulse with a receptor: a. antagonism c. affinity b. intrinsic activity d. none of the above 156.

Highly lipid soluble drugs are predominantly distributed in: a. nervous tissues c. fluid compartments b. blood d. all of the above 157. The term “prodrug” refers to: a. a chemical substance that is part of the synthesis of another drug b. compound that liberates an active drug in the body c. compound which nay be therapeutically active but still under clinical trials d. drug that is classified as being “probably effective”.

158. The value of particle size reduction to enhance drug absorption is limited to those situations in which the: a. absorption process occurs by active transport b. absorption process is rate limited by dissolution of drugs in GI fluids c. drug is very soluble d. drug is very potent 159. A pre-requisite of drug absorption is that the drug be in aqueous solution except in the absorption mechanism of: a. passive diffusion c. facilitated transport b. ion-pair transport d. pinocyctosis 160.

A theory which states the effectiveness does not depend on the actual occupation of receptor by the drug, but upon obtaining the proper stimulus a. hypothesis of Paton c. hypothesis of clark b. hyphotesis of Ariens and Stephenson d. lock & key Stephenson 161.

Equation followed by passive diffusion: www. brex. us a. Noyes-Whitney b. Van Slyke c. Fick’s Law d. Henderson-Hasselbalch e. none of the above 190 BIOPHARMACEUTICS B 162. The relative amount of drug from an administered dosage form which enters the systemic circulation and the rate at which the drug appears in blood streams a. accumulation b. bioavailability c. blood flow rate d. absorption C C B B D D C D A.

1. pharmacology Pharmacology is defined as the study of the interaction of chemical substances with living systems. 2.Drug A chemical substance that acts on living systems through chemical processes, which is utilized for diagnosis, prevention and cure of an unwanted …

HPRS 2300 Homework Electronic Submission dates: Chapter and Page numbers refer to the Text Book ( Hitner and Nagle 6 E) PLEASE NOTE: Check the Lesson Plan for the due dates. ALL SUBMISSIONS ARE DUE BY THE DATE LISTED HW …

|Pharmacy (Detailed) | |Sr. No. |Core Areas |Percentage | | | | | | |PHARMACEUTICS: | | | |1. Pharmaceutical Principles and Drug Dosage Forms______6% | | | |1. 1 Physicochemical Behaviors: | | | |1. 1. 1 Homogenous Systems: …

According to the Medical dictionary the definition of “Pharmacokinetics is, sometimes abbreviated as PK, the word coming from Ancient Greek pharmakon “drug” and kinetikos “to do with motion,” is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to the determination of the fate …

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