|Pharmacy (Detailed) | |Sr. No. |Core Areas |Percentage | | | | | | |PHARMACEUTICS: | | | |1. Pharmaceutical Principles and Drug Dosage Forms______6% | | | |1. 1 Physicochemical Behaviors: | | | |1. 1. 1 Homogenous Systems: | | | |Solutions: | | | |Solvents, Solutes, Electrolytes, Non-electrolytes | | | |Colligative properties: | | |1. |Lowering of vapor pressure, Elevation of boiling point, Depression of freezing point, Osmosis and | | | |Osmotic pressure. | | | |Buffers and buffer capacity: |20 % | | |What are the buffers, Buffer action, and Buffer capacity? | | | |1. 1.
2 Heterogeneous (Disperse) Systems: | | | |Basics about Suspensions and Emulsions | | | |Dispersion stability: | | | |Ideal dispersion, Particle size, Dispersed phase concentrations, Particle-particle interactions, | | | |Density. | | | | | | | |Emulsion Stability: | | | |Creaming, Coalescence, electrostatic repulsion, Phase inversion, Cracking. | | | | | | | |1. 2 Chemical Kinetics and Drug Stability: | | | |Introduction to stability of active ingredients: | | | |Reaction rates and orders of reaction. | | | | | | | |Factors affecting the reaction rates: | | | |Temperature, Presence of Solvent, Change in pH, Presence of additives.
| | | |Modes of pharmaceutical Degradation: | | | |Hydrolysis, Oxidation, Photolysis. | | | |2. Drug Dosage Forms ___________________________________6% | | | | | | | |Basics of Dosage forms: | | | |Tablets: | | | |Definition, Types, Advantages and disadvantages, Methods of Manufacturing, Excepients, Tablet | | | |defects, Coating effects. | | | |Capsules: | | | |Definition, Types, Methods of Manufacturing, Excepients. | | | |Oral drug solutions: | | | |Syrups and their additives, elixirs and their additives. | | | |Suspensions: | | | |Types, Purpose of suspensions, Suspending agents.
| | | |Emulsions: | | | |Types, Purpose of emulsion, Phases of emulsions, Emulsifying agents, Creams and Ointments; | | | |Introduction, Types of creams and ointments, Types of their bases, methods for preparation. | | | |Suppositories: | | | |Introduction, Types, Suppository bases, methods for preparation. | | | |Powders: | | | |Definition, Advantages and Disadvantages, Micromeretics, Trituration, Pulverization, Levigation, | | | |Spatulation, Simple and geometric mixing, Hygroscopic, Deliquescent substances, Eutectic mixtures. | | | |Aerosol Products: | | | |Introduction, Advantages and disadvantages, Aerosol additives.
| | | |Sterile Products: | | | |Sterility, Introduction, advantages and disadvantages of additives of Injectable. | | | | | | | |3. Biopharmaceutics and Drug Delivery Systems __________8 % | | | |Definitions: | | | |Biopharmaceutics, Drug Product, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, Bioavailability, Bioequivalence, | | | |Absorption, Distribution, Elimination. | | | |Biopharmaceutical Principles: | | | |Drug Dissolution, Drug Solubility, Particle size and surface area, Partition coefficient and extent | | | |of ionization, Salt formation, Polymorphism, Chirality, Hydrates, Complex formation.
| | | |Basic Pharmacokinetics: | | | |Zero order and first order reactions, Models and compartments, Drug Distribution and elimination. | | | |Bioavailability and Bioequivalence: | | | |Relative and Absolute bioavailability, AUC, Cmax, Tmax, Half-life, Sustained Release/Controlled | | | |Release Dosage forms, Introduction, Microencapsulation, Microspheres/Microcapsules, Dose dumping. | | |2. | |20 % | | |PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY: | | | |1. Instrumentation_______________________________________6 %
| | | | | | | |Basic Principle, instrumentation and Pharmaceutical applications of following techniques; HPLC, | | | |UV-spectrophotometery, IR | | | |2. Chemistry of Biomolecules_____________________________7% | | | | | | | |Introduction, Biological and pharmaceutical importance of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins, | | | |Enzymes and Hormones | | | |3. Principles of Medicinal Chemistry ______________________7% | | | |3. 1 Structure Activity Relationship; | | | |3. 1. 1 Structurally non-specific drugs, | | | |3. 1.
2 Structurally specific drugs | | | |Receptor-site theory, Receptor-site Binding, Stereochemistry (optical isomers, geometric isomers and | | | |conformational isomers) | | |3. | |20 % | | |PHARMACOLOGY: | | | |1. General Pharmacology_______________________________ 7 % | | | | | | | |Introduction,Pharmacokinetics,Pharmacodynamics, Dose, Efficacy, Safety, Potency, Dosage, Drug-Dose | | | |
Response curve, Therapeutic index, Receptors, Agonists and antagonists, Pharmacological antagonism | | | |(Competitive and Non-competitive), Partial antagonist, Physiological antagonism, Neutralizing | | | |antagonism. | | | | | | | |2. Mechanism of Drug Actions ___________________________7 % | | | | | | |
|Cell surface receptors, Signal transduction by cell-surface receptors, Signaling mediated by | | | |intracellular receptors, Target cell desensitization and hypersensitization, Pharmacological effects | | | |not mediated by receptors (for example anesthetics and cathartics).
| | | | | | | |3. Pharmacology of commonly used drug classes________6 % | | | |Classification, mechanism of action, indications and adverse effects of following commonly used drug | | | |classes; analgesics/antipyretics, anti-infective, antihypertensive, Diuretics, Anti-parasitic, | | | |Anti-malarial, drug sued in gastrointestinal disorders. | | |4. | | | | |PHARMACOGNOSY: |20 % | | |1.
General introduction __________________________________7 % | | | | | | | |Classification of Crude Drugs with Special Emphasis to Chemical and Therapeutical System of | | | |Classification. | | | |Terminologies used in Pharmacognosy; Pharmacognosy, crude drugs, Preparation of Crude Drugs for | | | |Commercial Market, Methods of Cultivation, Drying, Storage. Preservation, Packing, Deterioration and | | | |Adulteration of Crude Drugs. Evaluation of Crude Drugs (Organoleptic, Microscopic, Physical, Chemical| | | |and Biological).
| | | | | | | |Allergens and allergenic preparation_____________________7 % | | | | | | | |Introduction, case history, skin test, treatment off allergy, inhalant, ingestant, injectant, | | | |contactant, infectant and infestant allergens. Mechanism of allergy. | | | | | | | |3. Separation and isolation of plant constituents___________6 % | | | |An introduction to chromatography and chromatographic techniques e. g. Adsorption Chromatography and | | | |Partition Chromatography.
| | |5. | | | | |PHARMACY PRACTICE: |20 % | | |1. Community/Retail Pharmacy __________________________4% | | | | | | | |Basic introduction about; Prescription (parts, handling and filling of prescriptions), Medication | | | |order, Difference between Prescription and Medication order, Dose calculations, Compounding, | | | |Extemporaneous preparations, Pharmaceutical Care, Dispensing, Epidemiology, Drug abuse & Misuse. | | | |
Patient Medication Record. | | | | | | | |2. Medication errors______________________________________4% | | | | | | | |Definition, Types of errors; Wrong drug error, Extra dose error, Omission error, wrong strength | | | |error, Wrong route error, Wrong time error, Wrong dosage form errors. | | | | | | | |3. Clinical Pharmacy ____________________________________4% | | | | | | | |Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM), Clinical trials, Importance of Clinical| | | |Pharmacy, Pharmaco-economics, Pharmaco-vigilance, Patient Assessment, Patient Counseling, Patient | | | |Compliance/non-compliance, Rational use of drugs, Drug Utilization Evaluation, Drug Utilization | | | |Review.
| | | | | | | |4. Adverse Drug Reactions_______________________________4% | | | | | | | |Definition and difference between Adverse drug reactions and side effects, Types of Adverse drug | | | |reactions (Type-A and type-B). | | | | | | | |5. Drug interactions____________________________________4% | | | | | | | |Mechanism, Physiological factors affecting interaction, Types and level of drug interactions. | | | |Total |100% |.