Metabolism in the mmetabolism in the muscle

An increase in the blood flow through active tissues (this is due to the local vascular beds dilating). This increases muscle temperature and the rate of metabolism in the muscle. As the body’s heart rate is increased, more oxygen is carried around the body in the red blood cells providing more energy. There are four types of stretches that can be performed in a warm up: Active Stretching – This is when the performer moves a part of the body in to a position just beyond the normal range and holds that position for 10 seconds.

Passive Stretching – This is when a part of the body being moved by a partner beyond the normal range of movement, it is then held for 10 seconds. Ballistic (Dynamic) Stretching – This involves swinging/bouncing movements to take the body beyond the normal range of movement. Proprioceptive Neuro-muscular Facilitation (PNF) – This is when a performer stretches to a point just beyond the normal range of movement. A partner then holds this position whilst the performer contracts the antagonistic muscles. They then relax the muscle and repeat the action.

Examples Of Static, PNF & Ballistic Stretching

It has been researched and suggested that active stretches do not alleviate muscle stiffness (the ratio between the change in muscle resistance and the change in muscle length) as well as ballistic stretches. This is because dynamic stretches effectively use the properties of muscle spindles (a sensor in the muscle that detects the sense and speed of a stretch). By gradually increasing the stretch of the limb (e.g. the leg) to go higher and higher, it safely allows the muscle spindle to safely lengthen. My training programme will be concentrated on improving flexibility and strength so it will be vitally important that my muscles are not stiff. For this reason I believe it will be better to perform ballistic stretches in the warm up section, and active stretches in the cool down section, as these would help to relax the muscles.

Warm Up Gentle jog on the treadmill for 5 minutes running at a speed of 7 km/h at 0% incline. Stretches: Joint Stretches – In a standing position, flex and extend your fingers, wrist, elbows, shoulders, neck, trunk and shoulder blades, hips, knees, ankles, feet and toes. Four repetitions on each joint, one set. Neck Stretches – Laterally flex and extend your neck by lowering your left ear to your left shoulder and by lowering your right ear to your right shoulder. Flex and extend your neck by lowering your chin in to your chest then raising it as high as you can. Rotate your neck by turning your chin laterally towards your left shoulder then rotate it to your right shoulder. Ten repetitions on each stretch, one set.

Shoulder Circles – Whilst standing tall with your feet shoulder width apart with knees slightly bent, raise your right shoulder towards your right ear, and then take it backwards, down and then up to the ear again in a smooth action. Repeat with the other shoulder. Ten repetitions on each shoulder, one set. Arm Swings – Whilst keeping the back straight and standing tall with feet slightly wider than shoulder width apart and knees slightly bent, swing both arms continuously above your head then forward, down and backwards. Then swing both arms sideways and then cross them in front of your chest. Ten repetitions, one set.

Side Bends – Stand tall, with your feet slightly wider than shoulder width apart, with your knees slightly bent and your hands resting on your hips. Lift your trunk up and away from your hips and bend to one side then the other. Avoid leaning forwards or backwards. Whilst leaning to the side breathe out, and then when you get to the centre breathe in. Ten repetitions on each side, one set. Hip Circles & Twists – Circles – Whilst placing your hands on your hips with your feet spread wider than your shoulders, make circles with your hips in a clockwise direction, then counter clockwise. Twists – Extend your arms sideways and twist your torso and hips to the left, whilst shifting your weight to your left foot. Repeat on the right side. Ten repetitions on each, each exercise, one set.

Leg Swings – Flexion and Extension – Stand sideways on to a wall and then weight your left leg and you right hand on the wall for balance. Swing your right leg forwards and backwards. Change sides and repeat on the left leg. Ten repetitions on each leg, one set. Ankle Bounce – Lean forward with your hands on the wall and your weight on your toes. Raise and lower both heels rapidly (a bouncing action) whilst keeping the ball of your feet on the ground.

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