Lung Cancer Research

The topic about this assignment is about how smoking affects to cancer such as throat cancer, breast cancer, oral cancer, kidney cancer and especially lung cancer and the benefits of smoking cessation. The first part of this essay will identify and summary around ten reliable, relevant and truthful resources about this problem; identify reliable findings; identify area of the effectiveness of smoking to health. The next part will plan how to make a better research to address to this area and the relative unexplored about this area.

Cancer now is a really common illness that anyone could have, especially lung cancer. Lung cancer is the disease that comprises uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. The causes of lung cancer can be in anyone, male or female because of genetic, living in polluted environment, radon gas but the most common occurrence is smokers and second hand smokers. Smoking a cigarette will bring 4000 medicals such as nicotine or tars to a body through its lung and causes 85% of lung cancer (Smoking and Your Lungs).

Smoking also has a relation to breast cancer (35%), bladder cancer (6%), colon cancer (4%) and less other types of cancer (Pain and smoking among cancer patients: The relationship is complex but the clinical implication is clear, 2011). Compared to non smokers, men who smoke are about 23 times higher to get cancer and about 13 times for women (Cancer Statistic). Number of people have lung cancer because of smoking is about 1. 5 million cases in the world every year; and about 11,380 new cases in Australia during 2005 (Smoking and Cancer, 2008).

Nowadays, the campaign about smoking harm health reduced tobacco in use however everyday there is about 1000 teenagers start smoking (Western Journal of Nursing, 2010). Reducing smoking firstly in financial will decrease the costs of buying cigarettes, direct medical costs, intervention costs, treatment costs, health outcome (less 1. 5%) and future costs (decrease 4%), (Cost-effectiveness of varenicline compared with bupropion, NRT, and nortriptyline for smoking cessation in the Netherlands, 2008) in a long run. Secondly smoking less than before or never smoke also will affect less to the patients who have cancer.

The connections between pain and smoking cigarettes are favourable. Tobacco smokers experienced more pain than the non smokers and the ex-smokers because of the blood and oxygen flow to peripheral tissues. However the level of pain could not be measured (Associations between pain and current smoking status among cancer patients, 2011). Almost researches were using qualitative method to explore and discover the issue about smoking and cancer. The qualitative method is common mostly in a focus group not random, normally among participants who are smokers, second hand smokers, non smokers and previous smoker, have cancer.

The data is collected by observing the symptoms of the male and female patients, questioning the patients about their feeling, interview and group discussions. To have a better research in between smoking and cancer, the background of these issues should be deeply understand and all the definitions about cancer and smoking should be fully define so the arguments will be presented and intervention is based on the evidence or the data which is the ruler to judge and connect the information.

Therefore the structure of this research is established. Then the research questions are brought up and answer the problem- does smoking affect to cancer and how? Qualitative method is used rather than the quantitative method to explore the research by designing the focus group. The group of participants who have cancer in a health care organisation in a specific country or area, is divided by gender/ sex, race and ethnicity, group of age, how many years of smoking, had stopped smoking or not, types of cancer.

The data collection is from the health organisation. Next step, the interview or questionnaire with patients is conducted in a semi structured, open ended questions so it will not offence the patients and their family. The interview can use these following questions. What kind of cancer do you have? Does anyone in your family have cancer? Are you a currently smoker? If yes, how many years have you been smoking? Why did you start smoking at the first stage? How many cigarettes do you smoke daily?

Name the place you mostly smoke Do you use other drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, and heroin? Have you tries to stop smoking? Do you feel you can stop smoking any time you want? Does anyone in your family smoke? How many years have they been smoking? If no, have you ever smoked before? If you did, what were the important things that promoted you to quit? If you never smoke, what factors have influenced you not to smoke? What do you think about the environment around you? What is your opinion about your illness?

Do you think smoking affect to your health? Then the observation method is used to meet the subjects. Observation is to compare patients still smoke while they do the treatment and the patients do not smoking. The differences between these two will give a clearer result about their pain while doing treatment or surgery. Even though it is hard to measure the level of pain between patients, it can measure the suffering level between them somehow. The data are collected is the information as well as the evidence to sketch the charts.

The result for this subject can be possible accurate to analyse the problem and answer the question. Moreover it will help to find the solution to campaign the smoking cessation. In conclusion, this essay refers to the literature reviews of smoking and cancer and the study proposal of the plan how to do an accurate and better research. The literature review is the summary of the reliable resources to basically understand the topic, how they do the research and what kind of methodology they used.

In the plan study, it shows the way to a better research also by using qualitative method, focus group, open ended interview or questionnaire and observation to pursuit the result.

Reference: The University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre, Smoking and your lungs, online at http://www. upmc. com/HealthAtoZ/patienteducation/Documents/SmokingLungs. pdf Terry Martin, August 10, 2005, Cancer Statistics. Smoking and Cancer – Statistics for the U. S, online at http://quitsmoking. about. com/od/tobaccostatistics/a/cancerstats.htm Smoking and cancer, 2008, Cancer Council NSW, online at http://www. cancercouncil. com. au/editorial. asp? pageid=372#top Conn, Vicki S.

Still smoking after all these years. Western Journal of Nursing Research. Vol. 32(4), Jun 2010, pp. 431-433. Hoogendoorn, Martine; Welsing, Paco; Rutten-van Molken, Maureen P. M. H. 2008. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline compared with bupropion, NRT, and nortriptyline for smoking cessation in the Netherlands. Current Medical Research and Opinion. Vol. 24(1), 2008, pp. 51-61.

Ditre, Joseph W; Gonzalez, Brian D; Simmons, Vani N; Faul, Leigh Anne; Brandon, Thomas H; Jacobsen, Paul B. 2011. Associations between pain and current smoking status among cancer patients. Vol. 152(1), Jan 2011, pp. 60-65. Wang, Hao; O’Reilly, Eilis J; Weisskopf, Marc G; Logroscino, Giancarlo; McCullough, Marji L; Thun, Michael J; Schatzkin, Arthur; Kolonel, Laurence N; Ascherio, Alberto. 2011. Smoking and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A pooled analysis of 5 prospective cohorts. Archives of Neurology. Vol. 68(2), Feb 2011, pp. 207-213. George, Maureen; Margolis, Mitchell L.2010.

Race and lung cancer surgery–A qualitative analysis of relevant beliefs and management preferences. Oncology Nursing Forum. Vol. 37(6), Nov 2010, pp. 740-748. Butler, Karen M; Rayens, Mary Kay; Zhang, Mei; Hahn, Ellen J. 2011. Motivation to quit smoking among relatives of lung cancer patients. public Health Nursing. Vol. 28(1), Jan-Feb 2011, pp. 43-50. Brodersen, John; Thorsen, Hanne; Kreiner, Svend. 2010. Consequences of screening in lung cancer: Development and dimensionality of a questionnaire. Value in Health. Vol. 13(5), Jul-Aug 2010, pp. 601-612.

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