Is it a possibility that cancer can be related to hereditary genetic factors? What are the possibilities of genetics playing a role in cancer diagnosis? Genetic research and its correlation to cancer is a topic on the forefront of many research labs today. Many cancers are being researched for their connection with just common genetic makeup as a cause or correlation for cancer causing agents. It has is a topic of numerous discussions in most every cancer research lab in the market today.
Almost every type of cancer currently under study has some type of research that is or has been done related to genetics. Genetics play a strong role in developing cancer because there are many factors related to cancer that can be linked to genetics. According to (Cancer. net, 2011) “Many cancers begin when one or more genes in a cell are mutated (changed), creating and abnormal protein or no protein at all. The information provided by an abnormal protein is different from that of a normal protein, which can cause cells to multiply uncontrollable and become cancerous.
” The changes in protein are the identifying factors that give researcher the signs that cancer in fact does play a role with genetics. “A person can be born with the genetic mutation in all of their cells (germline mutation) or acquire a genetic mutation in a single cell during his or her lifetime. An acquired mutation is passed on to all cell that develop from that single cell(called somatic mutation). Somatic mutation can sometimes be caused by environmental factors, such as cigarette smoke” (Cancer. net, 2011). There are several genetic factors linked to an increase risk of cancer.
Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) is associated with mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2. BRCA is the common abbreviation which stands for Breast Cancer. “Clinicians already use guidelines in making decisions about assessments to identify carriers of rare BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, which confer very high risks of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been shown to be associated with breast cancer in genome wide association studies are common but confer only small increases in risk.
Whether these variants collectively enhance the identification of women at increased or reduced risk is unknown”(Wacholder, 2011). In BMC Medical Genetics research, “Currently known susceptibility genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 explain less than 25% of familial aggregation of breast cancer, which suggest the involvement of additional susceptibility genes, RNF8, UBC13 and MMS2 are involved in the DNA damage response pathway and play important roles in BRCA1 mediated DNA damage recognition.
Based on the evidence that several players in the ubiquitin-mediated BRCA1- dependent DDR seem to contribute to breast cancer predisposition, RNF8, UBC13 and MMS2 were considered plausible candidate genes for susceptibility to breast cancer”(“Mutation screening of RNF8, UBC13 and MMS2 genes in Northern Finnish breast cancer families. ,” 2011). Rendering information from BMC Medical Genetics research, “Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among women, and the presence of a family history is on of the most fundamental risk factors for the disease.
Currently known susceptibility genes including BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, CHEK2, PALB2, RAD51C and BR1P1 explain less than 25% of familial breast cancer”(“Mutation screening of RNF8, UBC13 and MMS2 genes in Northern Finnish breast cancer families. ,” 2011). Lynch syndrome is also known to increase a woman’s risk for ovarian, uterine, colorectal, stomach, small intestine, liver, and bile duct, brain as well as central nervous system cancers by causing mutations in several different genes. Peutz-jeghers syndrome is associated with a specific gene mutation that can increase the risk factors for ovarian, breast, uterine, and lung cancers.
Ataxia telangiectasia is related to a gene mutation that can cause and increase risk of leukemia, lymphoma, sarcoma, breast, ovarian and stomach cancer. There are many other genetic factors currently under research in which are being linked to cancer diagnosis every day. There are many factors related to cancer that can be linked to genetics. ”
Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes of DNA repair and hormone pathways have been reported to be associated with endometrial cancer risk”(“CHEK2, MGMT, SULT1E1 and SULT1A1 polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk.,” 2011). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are found in many DNA that is associated with other types of cancer as well.
The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are in a vast amount of the research studies resulting in cancer causing genetics. “History of a first degree relative with endometrial cancer has been associated with a two-fold increased risk of endometrial cancer, and low-risk genetic factors are likely to be involved in the development of this disease, as has now been demonstrated for several other cancers.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in estrogen and DNA repair processes have been the focus of many candidate gene association studies for endometrial cancer, since unopposed exposure to endogenous or exogenous estrogen is a well-established risk”(“CHEK2, MGMT, SULT1E1 and SULT1A1 polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk. ,” 2011). There is limited information on research among nonwhite populations; however, with woman being the prime communicators within the family maternal reported case numbers are much higher than those of paternal reports of gene transmissions.
This huge misconception has been that these genetics can only be transmitted from maternal genes and conferring to research this is not true both maternal and paternal genetics can pass on any of these gene mutations. There are estrogens and progesterone related gene variants and colorectal cancer risk in women researcher are investigating today. ” Two recent observational studies also reported no reduced risk for colorectal cancer incidence among postmenopausal women with higher circulating levels of estradiol and estrogen.
Findings from these studies seemingly suggest that progesterone, but not estrogen, may be the key candidate for risk reduction in colorectal cancer”(“Estrogen and progesterone-related gene variants and colorectal cancer risk in women. ,” 2011). Human made hormones are now under study as a cause for cancer under certain circumstance or conditions but all relate back to the human genetic make-up. “Genes responsible for sex-hormone synthesis and metabolism also affect changes in sex hormone concentrations, and variation in these genes may affect risk for disease development”(“Estrogen and progesteron-related gene variants and colorectal cancer risk in women. ,” 2011).
According to research done by BMC Medical Genetics,”Some but not all studies reported a potential link between genetic variation in estrogen receptors and colorectal cancer development”(“Estrogen and progesteron-related gene variants and colorectal cancer risk in women. ,” 2011). The most important reason genetics play a strong role in developing cancer is that people every day are diagnosed with cancer related to genetics.
There are many hereditary genes being linked to cancer of which 10 hereditary cancer genes currently being researched today. The 10 hereditary cancer genes are APC, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, CHKN2A, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, MYH and p53. The BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are the highest risk of developing cancer out of any of the then hereditary genes being tested today. BRCA1 has a 55-85% lifetime risk of developing breast cancer in women. BRCA2 has a 33-85% lifetime risk of developing breast cancer in women. BRCA1 is the gene that accounts for 40-50% of all hereditary breast cancers.
BRCA2 accounts for 33-50% of all hereditary breast cancers but less ovarian cancers occur with BRCA2 than BRCA1. MLH1 can account for 45% of hereditary colon cancers while MSH2 accounts for 35% of them. In conclusion, although not enough research supports genetics being linked to cancer, genetics play a strong role in developing cancer for two main reasons. First, there are many factors related to cancer that can be linked to genetics. Most importantly, people every day are diagnosed with cancer related to genetics being supported with the BRCA1 and BRCA 2 testing.
There are multiple hereditary genes that have been connected to cancer and many more being discovered everyday through ongoing research. ? References Analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 (MAP2K4) tumor suppressor gene in ovarian cancer.. (2011 May 17).
BMC Cancer, 173. doi:1471-2407 CHEK2, MGMT, SULT1E1 and SULT1A1 polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk.. (2011 August). Twin Res Hum Genet, 323-332. doi:18324274 Cancer. net. (2011 October 4). The Genetics of Ovarian Center.
Retrieved from http://www. cancer.net Estrogen and progesteron-related gene variants and colorectal cancer risk in women.. (2011, May 31). BMC Med. Genet. , 78. doi:14712350 Kallikrein-related peptidase 3 (KLK3/PSA) single nucleotide polymorphisms and ovarian cancer survival.. (2011).
Twin Res Hum Genet, 323-327. doi:18324274 Mutation screening of RNF8, UBC13 and MMS@ genes in Northern Finnish breast cancer families.. (2011, July 21). BMC Med. Genet. , 98. doi:14712350 Wacholder, S. D. (2011 March 18). Performance of common variants in breast cancer models.. The New England Journal of Medicine, 986-993. doi:10. 1056/NEJMoa0907727.