Something in the forest: 1. Describe three ways the Kinshasa Highways quickened the spread of the HIV virus. a. Drivers were the carriers of this disease and spread it when they traveled from town to town b. Prostitues and truck stops c. Drivers often enter different towns 2. In what ways can a deadly virus be spread to humanity? AIrborne, in water, direct contact, through blood. Jumper: 3. Monet has “crashed” and is “bleeding out”. What would you do if you were in Dr. Mosoke’s shoes. If I were in Dr.
Mosoke’s shoes, I would isolate Monet and I would not send him on a plane to another hospital because he could get infected through air. 4. Do you think more tests should have been done on Monet’s corpse? Justify your response. Yes. It is best to run as many tests as possible to get the most accurate results. Diagnosis: 5. What is your personal opinion about the use of animals in research that could eventually benefit mankind. I think it is a bad idea. BEcause the animals are now becoming infected, they can spread more easily. With people working in the labs, it is very dangerous to have infected animals.
The animals could scratch your suit and let air in. The animals can also get through your suit and scratch your skin. This would cause a person to get infected. Also, the affects for animals may be different. For example, if you test a medicine on an animal, it may not work on a human. Animals are not a reliable experimental object because they are very different from humans. Their bodies function differently, and they may interpret the disease in a different way. A Woman and a Soldier: No questions for this chapter Project Ebola: 6. Dr.
Johnson uses monkeys to test drugs against the deadly Ebola virus because their DNA is so similar ours that they could one day find a cure or vaccine against a virus that has the potential to kill 90% of the world’s population. Does this justify the use of monkeys? Justify your answer. I do not think this is a good idea. The monkeys may have similar DNA, however, they may react differently to the medicine. Total Immersion: 7. Why were 2 non-injected monkeys used? What was their purpose in the controlled experiment run by two scientists. They used a non-injected monkey to see if they would react to the vaccine the same as humans would.
8. Define the term virus. A virus is an infective agent that typically consists of a nucleic acid molecule in a protein coat. 9. AIDS is only transmitted through the exchange of bodily fluids. So why are people so afraid of AIDS carriers? Because most people with AIDS are not aware that they are carriers. Ebola River 10. Why are human blood serum samples mixed with monkey cells to check for a viral reaction? If there is human blood and monkey cells combined, their is a better chance of getting accurate results because their is a simulation of how the vaccine would react on a human. Cardinal:
11. In this chapter, we learn that Peter Cardinal had been in Kitum Cave. What does this tell us? This tells us how he got the disease. This cave is known for spread of the virus. Going deep: No questions for this chapter PART TWO: THE MONKEY HOUSE Reston: 12. Why are monkeys and other imported animals quarantined? To protect US citizens from getting the disease. 13. Who does Dan Dalgard contact for help with the diseased monkeys? USAMRIID 14. Why did he contact them? What could they do that he couldn’t? They had the bio-safety level 4, which is the highest level of testing possible.
15. What eventually happened to the infected monkeys? Their healthy cells got rapidly destroyed and they died. Exposure: 16. As mentioned in the book, it is not typical for SHF to destroy healthy ccells the way the virus did. What do you suggest, and what would be your next step if you were in charge of finding out what was killing all the monkeys? I would conduct test on why they were being killed so fast and run simulations on what would happen if the virus got worse. 17. How can you tell if a culture is being infected by a bacterium or a virus?
Explain your answer. Bacterium are cultured in labs most likely in petri dishes and viruses are tested through other methods such as PCR Medusa: 18. List the steps Tom Geisbert uses to prepare a virus to be photographed in the electron microscope. Before photographing the virus, he finds his diamond knife and sits in front of the cutting machine where he then puts the diamond knife in it. The first angel: 19. Geinsbert and Jahrling realize they’re in the incubation period for the virus. What would you do if you were in their situation?
Make sure to keep far form uninfected people and wear surgical masks to prevent aerial spread. The Second Angel: 20. Which form of Ebola was found to be infecting the monkeys? The form of Ebola was Ebola Zaire 21. What should Jahrling do at this point? What would you do if you walked a mile in his shoes? Be descriptive as to your exact plan of action at this point. Now that he knows the form that was infecting the monkeys, it is easier to eliminate when faced with people with other symptoms. Chain of command: 22. What are three ways to stop a virus? a. Avoiding contact b. strict quarantine.
c. Highly portective masks. Garbage bags: 23. What is the vector for AIDS, and how does it affect humans? HUmans are the vector for AIDS, and they are affected by their white blood cells and start having regular flu-like symptoms as their immune systems are slowly weakened making it easier for cancerous tumors and other diseases to start infecting. Space Walk: 24. What is the nature of the space suit in the biocontainment laboratory? How do they work to minimize the chance of a virus will enter the suit or escape the lab? Their is very low little air around them to stop spread of the virus.
The suits are not touching their skin so no viruses can get in through skin contact. Shoot out: 25. THe woman whom Joe McCormick treat for Ebola in a hut in SUdan turned out to not have Ebola, but Malaria. Compare and contrast the Ebola infections and the Malaria parasite’s life cycle. A female Anopheles mosquito carrying malaria-causing parasites feeds on a human and injects the parasites in the form of sporozoites into the bloodstream. Over 5-16 days*, the sporozoites grow, divide, and produce tens of thousands of haploid forms, called merozoites, per liver cell.
The merozoites exit the liver cells and re-enter the bloodstream, beginning a cycle of invasion of red blood cells, asexual replication, and release of newly formed merozoites from the red blood cells repeatedly over 1-3 days. The cycle of human infection re-starts when the mosquito takes a blood meal, injecting the sporozoites from its salivary glands into the human bloodstream . The Ebola virus life cycle begins with virion attachment to specific cell-surface receptors, followed by fusion of the virion envelope with cellular membranes and the concomitant release of the virus nucleocapsid into the cytosol.