Heart and Circulation

Function of right and left side of heart – structural difference Flow of blood around the heart Valves Pressure and volume changes related to heart cycle and opening and closing of valves Atrial systole, ventricular systole, diastole Names of major arteries and veins Differences in structure and function between veins, arteries and capillaries Properties of cardiac muscle •Myogenic – Without its nerve supply, a heart continues Is Coronary Heart Disease Preventable In this report we are looking at coronary heart disease (CHD) and if it is preventable.

We will look at several points for and against the preventable treatments that may be advised today. CHD is regularly in the media and there is more and more knowledge being reported to us than there has ever been before. So, what is CHD? CHD is a disease in which fatty substances build up inside the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygen rich blood to the heart muscle. When the fatty substances build up in the arteries this condition is called atherosclerosis. The build up of the fatty substances occurs over

many years. Over time the fatty substance could break open or rupture, if the hardening has occurred it will narrow the artery and thus restrict the flow of oxygen rich blood to the heart. If there is a rupture of the hardened fatty substance a blood clot could potentially form on the surface. If there is a large blood clot it could block the flow of blood through the coronary artery. If there is a restriction or reduction of oxygen rich blood flow to the heart angina or a heart attack can occur.

Angina is chest pain, according to my Father whenever he has an “angina attack” it feels like being put into a vice and the vice being tightened around his chest, the pain is in his throat and down his arms to his elbows. Mainly through the chest and arms though and a cold sweat with a severe feeling of distress also occurs. The medical dictionary definition of CHD is “atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, which may cause angina pectoris, myocardial infarction and sudden death; risk factors include hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus and low levels of high-density lipoproteins.

” (Farlex, 2005) There are numerous factors that contribute to CHD some that can definitely be prevented. The fat content of our diet has clearly been researched and shows clearly that abnormal blood lipid levels have high links with the risk of CHD. Abnormal blood lipids are linked to what we eat every single day, a diet of high saturated fats (e. g. butter) and trans fats (created artificially that are often used in cakes, fast food etc. ) lead to high levels of cholesterol.

Reducing cholesterol greatly reduces the risk of CHD and therefore is clearly our first piece of proof we may be able to prevent this disease. Cigarette smoking is obviously one of the major “players” in heart disease. Smokers die of CHD approximately 8 years ahead of non-smokers with other factors being equal. Smoking roughly doubles your chances of getting CHD. When a smoker has ceased their habit about half the excess risk is reversed quite quickly this is because smoking increases the chances of a blood clot. These changes reverse quickly on smoking cessation.

Social class is brought into smoking as there are more “lower class” smokers than those in the “middle” or “upper classes” This again is another preventable risk factor of CHD, simply quit or don’t start at all, society is far more educated for not smoking in 2013 as there is infinitely less advertising, sponsorship than even 10 years ago. Society is also more educated on the effects of smoking with such Government initiatives as the labeling of packaging to show very graphic pictures and also the ban on smoking in public places.

According to several media outlets Britain’s average body weight is on the increase. “Adults who have an average BMI of between 18. 5 and 24. 9 are generally considered to have an ideal body weight for their height. The UK which has a worrying rising obesity levels, particularly among children, is 26th (in the world) The average BMI for men is 27 while for women it is 26. 9” (Bond 2013) There has been a large decline in exercise due to increasing technologies, we may not have to work as hard as we once did due to robots etc.

Although calorie intake is falling the increased availability of high energy products means that people eat more than they need. There is twice the risk of CHD in an overweight/obese person than that of a “normal” person. Once again we are looking at a factor that is preventable diet and exercise is paramount, there are initiatives for people that are overweight such as general practitioners being able to refer patients for fitness training at local leisure facilities. Weight loss is by far the best means of lowering cholesterol and blood pressure.

“Aerobic exercise protects against CHD, those people with an active lifestyle and exercise at least three times a week have about half the risk of CHD of inactive people, mainly because of lower cholesterol and blood pressure. ” (Esselstyn, B DR 2007) In people who drink 1-2 units of alcohol per day the risk of a CHD event is about 20% lower than in people who drink none. But drinking more than 1-2 units per day confers no extra protection. Alcohol actually has the ability to increase high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol or “good cholesterol.

” However it does increase blood pressure and therefore there is a higher risk of stroke in heavy drinkers. (Statistics from Wolfson 2013) So is drinking 1-2 units of alcohol per day a good way of preventing CHD? No the increased mortality from cancer, accidental death, and other factors far outweigh the prevention of CHD. When we look if stress is a risk factor of CHD I believe it is a minor contributor. It is not necessarily “stress” that causes CHD it is the “things” we do when we are “stressed” for example, drinking alcohol heavily, over eating or eating the “wrong” foods.

Also when “under stress” our blood pressure increases, you could possibly exercise less and even smoke. However people respond in different ways to “stress” Therefore my argument would be that no matter how stressed you feel then educate yourself to deal with it in better ways like gentle aerobic exercise. The factors we have looked at do show that we can control the potential of getting CHD however there are other areas that we cannot control these are age, gender, and family history of CHD. On Sunday 10th November 2013 my Father was admitted to hospital having potentially had a heart attack, as previously mentioned he has angina.

I have since found out that two of my Uncles had CHD and so did a Grandfather, I spoke to a specialist at the Wrexham Maelor Hospital in North Wales that advised me due to family history I myself have an increased risk of CHD in later life. Many people have at least one risk factor of CHD and family history turns out to be mine. My Father on the other hand is diabetic and that was due to poor diet and unhealthy lifestyle, combined with the family history he had a far greater risk than someone that had a healthy lifestyle and no family history of CHD.

There is also increased researched into the theories of taking aspirin daily or statins. Statins are a medicine usually in tablet form taken once daily; they are used to lower blood cholesterol levels. Even though cholesterol is necessary normal cell and body function if high it does lead to atherosclerosis as previously mentioned. There is however a divide in professional circles as to whether statins are worth the risk of other issues such as cataracts and muscle inflammation.

Due to overwhelming divide it is difficult to make a decision on however the decision would always be up to your GP once he has looked at your own risk factors. Personally I conclude that CHD is preventable by making some simple lifestyle changes including eating a well balanced and healthy diet, being more physically active, giving up or never starting smoking, controlling and monitoring your blood sugar level and cholesterol. If you follow this few simple factors you would maintain a healthy heart and other health benefits also such as prevention of stroke and dementia.

In this research paper, I will be analyzing the process of blood circulation within the human body. I will be focusing on the pulmonary circuit and the systemic circuit, as well as the relationship with the hepatic portal system. The …

Introduction I. Millions of americans suffer from heart disease. II. In fact, heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women III. About 600,000 people die of heart disease each year in the United States. WE …

Discuss the reasons for the global distribution of heart disease. Consider: “h The nature of Coronary Heart Disease. What is it? “h The Global distribution of Coronary Heart Disease. “h The likely causes for this – include diet, smoking, lack …

The heart is the organ that supplies blood and oxygen to all parts of the body. The heart is located in the chest cavity just posterior to the breastbone, between the lungs and superior to the diaphragm. The heart is …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy