Health objectives and campaigns are designed to set the foundation for addressing health care issues prevalent across the nation. Diabetes is a disease that affects millions of people. Due to the complications that can often go along with diabetes, public health policies are implemented to clarify issues that will improve the health of individuals. As presented in the health campaign part one, there are numerous government agencies, which exploit health information on federal, state, and local levels to develop policies and allocate resources to programs and necessary organizations.
Many models and systems are used to manage diabetes and bring forth long-term health impacts. The importance of these models and systems are significant to determine the prevalence of diabetes and in providing vital statistics and data associated with the disease. The elements of assessment and planning are necessary to the success of health campaigns. Assessment and planning is integral to implementing goals and objectives. The health objective to “reduce the death rate among persons with diabetes” is one of many set forth by Health People 2020, which target individuals affected by diabetes (Healthy People 2020, 2013).
The various stages throughout the health campaign process lay the foundation for target populations to receive knowledge on national and community levels to improve their overall well-being in regards to prevalent health care issues. Diabetes on National and State Levels The Diabetes Self-Management Education (DSME) is the basis for individuals who desire to attain health-related outcomes associated with diabetes. “The National Standards for DSME are designed to define quality diabetes self-management education that be implemented in diverse settings and will facilitate improvement in health care outcomes” (Mensing et al, 2002, p. 41).
On at national level, the Task Force was established to evaluate the standards and revise as necessary to reflect advances in technology and evidence- based practices. The Task Force reviews existing standards to detect issues that need to be evaluated more thoroughly. They also receive input from diabetes organizations and federal agencies, such as the American Diabetes Association, who utilize the national standards. (Mensing, 2002). The prevalence of diabetes has increased tremendously over the last several decades.
The dramatic increase in the incidence and prevalence of diabetes is due to the changes in diagnostic criteria and an increase in the interest in appropriately treating individuals affected by the disease (Render, Valk, Griffen, & Wagner, 2001). Between 1994 and 2001, the mortality rate among individuals with diabetes decreased by 5%. The decrease was due to improved treatments and continuous monitoring of chronic patients (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013). Community-Based Responses An intervention plan operates for several main purposes.
Intervention plans “provide rationale, a description, and an operational plan” for various diabetic management interventions (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2004, p. 213). The main intention of interventions is to affect determinants to improve healthy behaviors among individuals affected by diabetes. Every intervention designed with attention to specific characteristics is essential to the implementation of an intervention plan (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2004). Community assessments identify relative health care disparities that can be a risk to the quality of life to a community.
Community members who participate in interventions during the assessment and planning phases of health campaigns will respond to community needs and promote a sense of community ownership (Bracht, Kingsbury, & Rissel, 1999). Diabetes support groups help establish compassionate relationships and eliminate communicational gaps between patients and health care professionals. The basic elements central to the development of diabetic community-based programs are health care professionals who support and maintain a relationship toward diabetes education (Mensing et al, 2002).
It is important to understand the process of engagement to which a community participates in community efforts and take action on health care issues. Community-based foundations respond to challenges in public health by developing upon already established attitudes and on a history of community leadership. Communities are becoming involved and are delving into intricate roles to inform and influence public health issues such as diabetes.
Diabetic community-based groups help individuals become more confident in their decisions regarding their health care. Supports groups enable diabetics to maintain healthy lifestyles and be able to introduce comprehensive steps to build better futures (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2004). Institutional and Community Leadership Health care organizations and communities must work together to support diabetes care programs. Addressing health care issues, such as diabetes, is challenging for health care systems to achieve without the support of the community.
The Building Community Supports for Diabetes Care (BCS) program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Diabetes Initiative required that projects build community supports for diabetes care through clinic-community partnerships” (Brownson, O’Toole, Shetty, & Fisher, 2007, p. 210). The BCS project’s demonstrates community leadership by positively affecting health and lifestyle choices for individuals with diabetes. Each BCS project varies depending on the community and the resources available (Brownson, O’Toole, Shetty, & Fisher, 2007).
Maine General Health, a BCS project, was developed in 2001. Maine General Health recognized diabetes as a health issue of priority for the area of Waterville, Maine. Partnering with the Planned Approach to Community Health (PATCH), Maine General Health was able to determine barriers to self-management of diabetes (Brownson, O’Toole, Shetty, & Fisher, 2007). As a community, strategies were implemented to increase physical activity for individuals. Lack of physical activity was focused upon since this had been found to be directly related to diabetes (Brownson, O’Toole, Shetty, & Fisher, 2007).
The partnerships created within the BCS projects enabled communities to support diabetes care and patient self-management. The continued support of community leadership allowed individuals to receive the care they needed to enhance their quality of life, while living with diabetes (Brownson, O’Toole, Shetty, & Fisher, 2007). Economic Factors and Intervention Strategies The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stresses the significance of evaluating interventional plans as an essential basis for the funding and implementation of diabetes management (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013).
Identifying the strengths and weaknesses of important elements in the intervention plan allows policy makers, government agencies, and health care professionals to improve diabetic programs and establish the necessary strategies to enhance the management of diabetes in communities (Bracht, Kingsbury, & Rissel, 1999). Due to economic factors, the responsibility of care of individuals with diabetes has migrated way from hospitals towards primary care facilities. Studies, although, have proven the compliance among patient with diabetes is inadequate (Renders, Valk, Griffen, Wagner, 2001).
The routine evaluation of diabetes has evoked interventions and strategies to be implemented nationally and locally to improve the standards for health care facilities providing direct access to diabetic patients (Renders, Valk, Griffen, Wagner, 2001). “In 2005, 20. 8 million people were estimated to have diabetes, representing 7 percent of the US population” (CDC, 2013, para 2). Strategies concentrate on diabetes education for patients, as well as towards the nurses and physicians who treat patients on a daily basis. Doctors and nurses have major roles in patient advocacy by encouraging appropriate disease management.
Frequent interaction is necessary to aid individuals in managing diabetes and to guarantee they receive the care to eliminate many of the serious complications that can go along with diabetes. The involvement from staff can benefit patients by helping them become more knowledgeable in diabetes management. Providing educational resources that take into consideration health knowledge can improve an individual’s ability to manage diabetes (Bracht, Kingsbury, Rissel, 1999). Role of Social Marketing Social marketing can be useful in the campaign process.
Social marketing concerning health issues involves “the systematic application of marketing concepts and techniques to achieve specific behavior goals relevant to improving health and reducing health inequalities” (Thackeray & Neiger, 2003, p. 16). Social marketing is essential to advancing the lives and well-bieng of individuals affected by diabetes (Thackeray & Neiger, 2003). “The Social Marketing Assessment and Response Tool (SMART) model is used to establish a relationship between social marketing and culturally specific interventions” (Thackeray & Neiger, 2003, p. 19).
The model encompasses a systematic process that includes planning and market analysis to develop diabetes interventions. To effectively establish interventions, SMART is a useful method to create a relationship between social marketing and the diabetic population. Diabetes interventions employed using the SMART model, have proven to increase the chances of target audiences achieving the desired health care changes (Thackerway & Neiger, 2003). In 2009, the “Half the Care” diabetes campaign was launched by New York State. The “Half the Care” Campaign urged doctors to offer increased care to their patients with diabetes.
The Campaign was launched after a poll of only diabetic patients received only 45% of the recommended care for screening of diabetes, treatments, and follow-up care (Thackerway & Neiger, 2003). Conclusion Community foundations face increasing demands and encounter difficult choices about where and how to allocate their resources. The increased burden is due to the rise in health care issues, such as diabetes, which is more involved than ever with a variety of serious complications. Health care organizations and communities must work together to support diabetes care programs (Brownson, O’Toole, Shetty, & Fisher, 2007).
Social marketing is essential to advancing the lives and well-bieng of individuals affected by diabetes (Thackeray & Neiger, 2003). Identifying the strengths and weaknesses of important elements in the intervention plan allows policy makers, government agencies, and health care professionals to improve diabetic programs and establish the necessary strategies to enhance the management of diabetes in communities (Bracht, Kingsbury, & Rissel, 1999). The importance of self-management of diabetes to reduce the death rate among individuals affected with the disease is crucial to reduce the diabetes epidemic.