Gastroesophageal reflux disease

oIndications: Diarrhea, heartburn, indigestion, upset stomach oTherapeutic effect: Antacid and anti dirrhea oAction: Coat the walls of the GI tract. Bind the causative bacteria or toxin to their adsorbent surface for elimination from the body through the stool. oAdverse effects: Increased bleeding time, constipation, dark stools, confusion, tinnitus, metallic taste, blue gums. oRoute of administration: Oral tablet, oral suspension, chewable, powder oPt education: Do not take with other salicylate-based products. Check with provider before giving to child with viral infection. Take as indicated.

Will turn stool black or gray. Chew tablets thoroughly before swallowing with at least 6oz fluid. •Prokinetic drugs oIndications: Delayed gastric emptying, gastroesophageal reflux, nausea and vomiting. oTherapeutic effect: Promote movement of substances through the GI tract and increase GI mobility oAction: Block dopamine receptors in the CTZ, which desensitizes the CTZ to impulses it receives from the GI tract. oAdverse effects: Hypotension, tachycardia, sedation, fatigue, restlessness, headache, dystonia, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea oRoute of administration: Oral and parenteral forms.

oPt education: •Cimetidine (Tagamet) oIndications: GERD, peptic ulcer disease, erosive esophagitis oTherapeutic effect: Reduce acid in the stomach oAction: Blocks H2 receptor of acid-producing parietal cells. oAdverse effects: Headache, dizziness, diarrhea oRoute of administration: Oral tablet, oral liquid, IV, powder oPt Education: Take as prescribed. Do not take within 1 hour if antacids. Smoking decreases effectivness •Alosetron (Lotronex) oIndications: Severe, chronic IBS in women oTherapeutic effect: Reduce IBS symptoms oAction: Blocks the action of serotonin in the intestine.

Slows movement of stools in intestine. oAdverse effects: Constipation, Abd pain, or discomfort, rectal bleeding, black tarry stools, diarrhea, fever, heartburn, indigestion, nausea, vomiting oRoute of administration: Oral Tablet oPt education: Take as ordered, on empty stomach, keep daily journal to help prescriber identify effectivness. •Hydroxyzine (Vistaril) oIndications: oTherapeutic effect: oAction: uric acid production. oAdverse effects: oRoute of administration: oPt education: •Calcium supplements oIndications: Treatment or prevention of calcium depletion.

oTherapeutic effect: Reduce effects of calcium depletion oAction: Physiologic functions and building block for body structures. oAdverse effects: Hypercalcemia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting and constipation. oRoute of administration: Oral and parenteral forms oPt education: Take as prescribed with adequate amounts of fluid. •Allopurinol (Zyloprim) oIndications: Gout and kidney stones oTherapeutic effect: Gout relief oAction: Inhibit the enzyme xanthine oxidase, which prevents oAdverse effects: Joint stiffness or swelling, rash,

oRoute of administration: Oral tablet or powder for injection oPt education: Take as directed. •Dextromethorphan oIndications: Cough oTherapeutic effect: Cough Suppressant oAction: Affects the signals in the brain that trigger cough reflex oAdverse effects: Dizziness, drowsiness, and nausea. oRoute of administration: Oral, lozenges, solution, liquid-filled caosules, granules, tablets, extended-release suspension. oPt education: Take as ordered. Use caution when driving or other activities that require mental alertness. Take at evenly spaced intervals.

•Antihistamine oIndications: Management of nasal allergies, rhinitis oTherapeutic effect: reduce symptoms of allergies oAction: Block histamine receptors oAdverse effects: Drowsiness, dry mouth, changes in vision, difficulty urinating, constipation oRoute of administration: Oral or IV oPt education: Take as ordered. Educate about sedating effects. Avoid alcohol. Take with food to avoid GI upset. •Topically applied andrenergic nasal decongestants oIndications: Reduce nasal congestion oTherapeutic effect: Reduce nasal swelling.

oAction: Shrink engorged nasal mucous membranes and relieve nasal stuffiness. oAdverse effects: Nervousness, insomnia, palpitations, tremor. oRoute of administration: Topically oPt education: Report fever of higher than 100. 4, cough or other symptoms lasting longer than 3-4 days. •Xanthine derivatves oIndications: Dilate airways in pts with asthma, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema oTherapeutic effect: Reduce symptoms of asthma, bronchitis and emphysema. oAction: Increase cAMP levels by inhibiting phosphodiesterase oAdverse effects: Nausea, vomiting, anorexia.

oRoute of administration: Oral, injectable and topical. oPt education: Take as prescribed, around the clock. Teach pt how to take pulse rate. Educate about the interaction between smoking. •Inhaled corticosteroids oIndications: Asthma oTherapeutic effect: Reduce symptoms of asthma and other bronchospastic disorders oAction: Stabilize the membranes of cells that normally relsase bronchoconstricting substances oAdverse effects: Pharyngeal irritation, coughing, dry mouth, oral fungal infections oRoute of administration: Inhaled.

oPt education: Take as ordered, importance of good oral hygiene, keep track of doses left. •Dronabinol (Marinol) oIndications: Prevention or treatment of nausea and vomiting oTherapeutic effect: Reduce symptoms of nausea and vomiting related to chemotherapy treatements oAction: Inhibit the reticular formation, thalamus and cerebral cortex oAdverse effects: Drowsiness, dizziness, anxiety, confusion, euphoria, visual disturbances, dry mouth oRoute of administration: Oral use only oPt education: Take as directed, may be habit forming.

Do not crush, break or chew. Take 1-3 hours before chemo treatment •Diphenoxylate (Lomotil) oIndications: Treatment of diarrhea oTherapeutic effects: Reduce symptoms of diarrhea oAction: Reduce bowel motility oAdverse effects: Drowsiness, dizziness, lethargy, nausea, vomiting. oRoute of administration: Oral use only oPt education: Take exactly as directions indicate, with strict adhearance to recommended dose, frequency, and duration of treatment. Contact health provider if symptoms persist.

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Antihistamines, Decongestants, Antitussive, and Expectorants Antihistamines: Substances capable of reducing the physiologic and pharmacologic effects of histamine, including a wide variety of drugs that block histamine receptors. Indications: Management of: nasal allergies, seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis (hay fever), allergic …

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