Female genital cutting has been defended by traditions of people who still practice it under the argument that it prepares young adults to adulthood and marriage life. However, medical practitioners and researchers have shown that the act has negative results like leading to infertility, inflammation. The culture in general is being championed against by international organizations that champion for human rights, but on the ground, and in the countries where it is being practiced; there are no stiff laws to deal with the vice.
Cultural basis and support Female genital mutilation is an old cultural practice among several communities especially in Africa. It held a special meaning to the community and was celebrated at certain times of the year. Female genital mutilation has been supported because of the role it plays in the local communities in the traditional setting to preparing young girls into adulthood. The common believe was and still in some places that that the girls are separated from their childhood after undergoing this right of initiation.
The action is practiced to prepare them for marriage since before this they are perceived to be children, to reduce the desire for sex amongst women, protecting virginity, and generally viewed as a way to prepare girls for future motherly roles and becoming a wife (Shaaban and Harbison, 2005) – See the first reference below. The latter is held by the fact that the initiation time was a period where the initiated would be taught issues of life and sex and how to respond to various issues of womanhood.
The activity is still finding a place amongst the communities because it was largely a time for the people to unite and make merry. Argument against Female genital mutilation is generally viewed as a barbaric act, oppressing to women and against their rights. The multinational community has been largely against the act and efforts have been underway to initiate program championing against it. Medical research on the vice has linked genital mutilation in women to infertility.
Almroth et al (as cited in and Harbison Shaaban)-See the first reference below conducted a case control in Sudan with 99 women whose primary infertility was not caused by iatrogenic or other factors and forty eight of them had adnexal pathology indicative of previous inflammation. Their conclusion was that anatomical extent of genital cutting in females was connected to primary infertility. Other negative impacts of the acts are scarring, tubal-factor infertility and inflammation (Harbison and Shaaban). See the first reference below. The laxity The international Community has been criticized for its failure to totally in ending the act.
Boyle found that diffusion of norms against the act of mutilating female genitals as being a top-down globalization process motivated by international standards which reject the activity as violating human rights and women health. International norms against the practice are resisted by countries and individuals (Boyle). Medical providers have been accused for their offer of medical assistance in providing the continuity of the practice to curb problems related to health and hygiene posed by the practice (Shell-Duncan, 2001; as cited in Harbison and Shaaban, 2005).
See the second reference below. Advice Although Nawal’s case is complicated by the relatives and family members, she should stand her grounds since the health of the child is more important. Where necessary, she should take care of the child herself to avoid any attempts by the relatives to force her into the practice. Again, she should advice the child on the matter so that she cannot be lured even when a grown up. She should consult relevant organizations or authorities that share her opinions against the practice, in her country for more directions. References Shaaban M and Harbison S. Reaching the tipping point against female genital mutilation The Lancet.
London: Jul 30-Aug 5, 2005. Vol. 366. no. 9483, p. 347-9 (3 pp. ) Almroth L, Elmusharaf S, ElHadi N, et al. Primary infertility after genital mutilation in girlhood in Sudan. Lancet 2005; 366: 385-91. Shell-Duncan B. The medicalization of female circumcision: harm reduction or promotion of a dangerous practice? Soc Sci Med 2001; 52: 1013-28. Shaaban M, Harbison S. Reaching the tipping point against female genital mutilation The Lancet. London: July 30-Aug 5, 2005. Vol. 366, no. 9483, p. 347-9 (3 pp. )