Efficacy Research and Effectiveness Studies of IPT

A IPT-A meets four essential conditions that permit its inclusion as an efficacious treatment: 1. The treatment is manual-based. The sample characteristics are detailed; 3. The treatment has been tested in a randomized clinical trial and 4. At least two different investigator teams demonstrated the interventions effects (Rossello and Bernal, 1999). The initial open trial conducted by Mufson and colleagues (2004) had two phases. In the first phase, the treatment was modified to meet the needs of an adolescent population and was standardized in a treatment manual.

In the second phase, 14 depressed adolescents (ages 12-18) entered a 12-week open clinical trial of IPT-A. Subjects were assessed using a semi-structured diagnostic interview, self-report and clinician-administered instruments at six time points: evaluation week and weeks 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12. At termination, the adolescents reported a significant decrease in depressive symptomatology and an improvement in interpersonal functioning. None of the subjects met criteria for any depressive disorder at the conclusion of the study.

In a follow-up analysis conducted with 10 of the 14 adolescents one year after the initial study, the adolescents were found to have maintained their state of recovery from depression. Only one of the adolescents (10%) who participated in the follow-up study was suffering from an affective disorder at that time. The majority of the subjects reported few depressive symptoms and had maintained their improvement in social functioning.

There were no reported hospitalizations or suicide attempts since the completion of treatment and all were attending school regularly (Mufson &Fairbanks, 1996). Although this study was based on a very small sample size, it provided preliminary support for the use of IPT-A. Subsequent work has shown IPT-A to be effective in the treatment of major depressive disorders in adolescents, randomly assigned to IPT-A or clinical monitoring (10). Significantly more IPT-A patients completed treatment.

In addition, IPT-A patients reported fewer depressive symptoms, improved overall social functioning and better skills in certain areas of social problem- solving skills. Rossello and Bernal (1999), who used a different modification of the adult manual, found that 82% of the adolescents receiving IPT compared to 52% of the adolescents receiving CBT met recovery criteria by the end of treatment. Both IPT and CBT were significantly better than the waitlist condition for decreasing depression symptoms.

A recent effectiveness study has compared IPT-A to treatment as usual (TAU) in the school-based health clinics in New York City as delivered by the clinicians employed in the school-based clinics (Mufson et al. , 2004). Treatment as usual consisted of the psychological treatment the adolescents would have received had the study not been in place (generally, supportive, individual counseling). Adolescents treated with IPTA compared to TAU showed greater symptom reduction, significantly better social functioning, and greater decrease in clinical severity of depression and improvement in overall functioning.

In addition, the study demonstrated the ability to train community clinicians to deliver IPT-A effectively using a streamlined therapy training program and similarly demonstrated the transportability of IPT-A from the university lab setting to the community (Mufson et al. , 2004). Conclusions IPT-A is a focused and brief therapy for depressed adolescents. IPT-A has been found to be both efficacious and effective in several therapeutic settings. It is important to emphasize that we do not think IPT-A is the only therapy for depressed adolescents and might not even be the best one for all patients.

However, it is important for a therapist to be trained in IPT-A and to be able to use it whenever appropriate. The group adaptation (IPT-AG) may be another cost-effective option since it allows staff and clinics to meet the needs of more patients without additional personnel or more clinical hours.


Elkin I, Shea MT, Watkins JT, Imber SD, Sotsky SM, Collins JF, et al. (1989). National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. General effectiveness of treatments. Arch Gen Psychiatry; 46:971-982.Frank E, Swartz HA, Kupfer DJ. (2000). Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy: managing the chaos of bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry; 48:593-604. Klerman GL, Weissman MM, Rounsaville BJ, Chevron E. (1984). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression. New York: Basic Books, 1984. Kiesler DJ. (1999). An interpersonal communication analysis of relationship in psychotherapy. Psychiatry 1999;42: 299-311. Lewinsohn PM, Clarke GN, Seeley IR, Rohde P. (1994). Major depression in community adolescents: Age at onset, episode, duration and time to recurrence. J Am Acad Child

Adolesc Psychiatry; 33:809-818. Mufson L, Dorta KP, Moreau D, Weissman MM. (2004). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents, second edition ed. New York, NY: Guilford. Mufson L, Dorta KP, Wickramaratne P, Nomura Y, Olfson M, Weissman MM. (2004). A randomized effectiveness trial of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004; 61:577-584. Mufson L, Fairbanks J. (1996). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents: A one- year naturalistic follow-up study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry; 35:1145-1155.

Mufson L, Dorta KP, Olfson M, Weissman MM, Hoagwood K. (2004). Effectiveness Research: Transporting interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A) from the lab to school-based health clinics. [References]. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev;7:251261. Mufson L, Dorta KP, Wickramaratne P, Nomura Y, Olfson M, Weissman MM. (2004). A randomized effectiveness trial of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004; 61: 577-84. Puig-Antich J, Kaufman J, Ryan ND, Williamson DE, Dahl RE, Lukens E, et al. (1993). The

psychosocial functioning and family environment of depressed adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry;32:244-253. Rossello I, Bernal G. (1999). The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral and interpersonal treatments for depression in Puerto Rican adolescents. I Consult Clin Psychol; 67:734-745. Shaffer D, Waslick BD. (2002). The many faces of depression in children and adolescents. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. Shaffer D, Gould MS, Fisher P, Trautman P, Moreau D, Kleinman M, et al. (1996). Psychiatric diagnosis in child and adolescent suicide. Arch Gen Psychiatry; 53:339348.

Shortly following the introduction of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in 1937, the initial reports on its use as refractory treatment for decreasing relapses in major psychoses were published. Because of the victorious application of psychotropic medication, the use of refractory ECT …

Research studies into dyslexia can be dated as far back as the late 19th century. However, it was not until fifty years ago that the term dyslexia came into use. Originating from the Greek words dys, meaning difficulty, and lexia, …

Modern life is stressful and leaves its psychological scars on too many adolescents, who are unable to cope effectively, never reach their human potential. An adolescent who says “I’m depressed” or “I’m so down” may be describing a mood that …

The inspiration I have for obtaining a PhD in Pharmacy first springs from the history of my family, my having come from an underclass and limited education background. It has always been my hope and dream that I would rise …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy