Genes are precise sequences of passes that code instruction on how to synthesis proteins. Mostly genes get a lot of attention but it’s the proteins in them that carry out most life functions and frame most of cellular structures. Genetic disorders occur when genes are interfered and the coded proteins are incapable of carrying out their role. Gene therapy is the introduction of genes into an individual’s cells or tissues to extravagance a disorder. It is a system for correcting substandard genes accountable for disease growth (Kohn and Steve 2009).
Several approaches are underway by researchers for correcting flawed genes. They include, incorporation of a normal gene into a nonspecific position inside a genome to substitute a nonfunctional gene this is the most familiar advance, substituting an anomalous gene for an ordinary gene through homologous recombination, renovation of unusual gene through choosy reverse mutation that returns a gene to its standard function and interfering the ruling of a particular gene. Gene therapy is classified into two.
Gene line therapy basically entails modification of germ cell by introduction of functional genes which are incorporated hooked on to their genomes. The second is somatic gene therapy which entails the transfer of therapeutic genes into a patient’s somatic cell (Durai, Porteus, Kandavelou, and Chandraseg 2005). In medical research gene therapy has credible pledge in the treatment of a variety of ailments which are predisposed by a particular gene flaw, examples include, hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, and muscular dystrophy (Kohn and Steve 2009).
Gene therapy is limited to two types of c ell; stem cells and mortally differentiated post mitotic long lived cells. The choice of gene delivery of the viral vector is wholly predisposed by the characteristic of the targeted cell, in their replication cycle viruses attach themselves to their host and bring in their genetic substances. Also adeno viruses and adeno linked viruses are splendidly used in gene therapy (Kohn and Steve 2009). This is because its genetic matter is not imitated during cell division and it does not mix in the cell.
Adenoviruses carry their stuff in type of double stranded DNA. They work by inducing their DNA molecule to the host cell. This DNA molecule is free and its information is transcribed normally. Gene therapy is justifiable since it provides a remedy to persistent diseases. Metastatic melanoma was successfully diagnosed in two patients using T killer cells; they are primary cells that develop in the bone marrow in the type of stem cells. ( (Kohn and Steve 2009)