Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills

This assignment will discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills and discuss any links between them . We are given many different types of feedback by different people and they come in different forms. The main types are: Intrinsic / Extrinsic Feedback , Terminal / Continuous Feedback Positive / Negative Feedback. Intrinsic Feedback is feedback that comes from the performer to see how the skill was performed. Take a tennis player or example assessing and deciding what to change to their serve after it has gone into the net.

Extrinsic Feedback is feedback from another person on your performance of a skill for example coach, teacher or a friend or someone watching you play a sport and telling you how you are performing his could be positive or negative. Terminal Feedback Is quoted in the Advanced P. e to be “feedback after the response has been completed. So this feedback is given after the players performance. For example a coach analysing the players game and giving feedback on it , This also strengthens the schema in the memory.

Schema is something the assignment will look at further on. Continuous Feedback This is gathered during the performance of the skill, this maybe extrinsic , a coach shouting information or intrinsic , the feel of the movements through kinesthesis or proprietors Positive Feedback When a skill is performed correctly giving a successful outcome. The player then knows what to do for the next time that they do that particular action. This type of feedback is essential for performers in the cognitive stages of learning.

An example of this would be if a football player performs a good corner and the coach tells them that it had good technique. Negative Feedback This is more than just picking out a weakness in the players game. It includes what the player should do to correct the fault. This feedback must be used carefully because it can easily demotivate the player, to a player who is well developed in their sport this type of feedback is very important to improve their techniques. For example a coach telling a basketball player that their lay-up is not very good they should be aiming for the square

. Knowledge of Performance-Knowledge gained through feedback, coach video or self-analysis about their performance and technique. Knowledge of Results given to the performer which can be analysed and compared to previous performances. For example number of pots made in snooker and number of shots that missed. All of these types of feedback have great influences on us when we play or practice sport. Take a goal keeper for example playing at quiet high standard , many different types of feedback are useful when training or playing a match .

From my experience the most commen types of feedback used by coaches are positive feedback and negative feedback. When positive feedback is used the performer will feel more motivated and becomes more confident doing things correctly and only need minor adjustments. When negative feedback is used the performer will feel slightly demotivated but this will make them want to succeed even more and get things right that they are doing incorrectly. When analysing goal keeping a performer would use knowledge of results to get an idea of good and bad points in his game.

They could look at how many goals conceded balls dropped unforced errors made Over the season k they could keep this to compare it to previous seasons, This feedback is important to see how they are doing at the time. Guidance is an important way of giving feedback. It can be given/received in three ways: visually, verbally and manually (augmented) according to Sport and p.. e text book “it is an essential feature of learning skills. ” When goal keeping is taught all three types of guidance is needed for the performer to acquire the skill technique correctly.

If the body is in the incorrect position then the coach would use an augmented or verbal type of guidance to correct the body shape. Also in the situation the coach would use visual guidance to show the learner what would be the correct way of doing the action. If the coach thought that the player was doing any thing correctly then they would use verbal guidance just to tell them a slight fault so then they can correct is quickly without having to start the process again.

For example if a player had set up to catch an incoming cross and his feet were positioned incorrectly so that the greatest lift was not possible then the coach would advise the player to stand on tip of toes and to bring one foot forward facing the ball. From my experience augmented feedback is the most stressful and annoying type of guidance this is because if it is used too much then the player may feel demodulated and could loose interest by constantly being manoeuvred in how to do things correctly.

For the assignment another thing related to feedback is schema, The educe text book quotes schema to be “The information stored about the production of movements” so in other terms you could call schema a type of mental list of how to perform a skill, for example in snooker if your playing a standard shot a performer will automatically walk into the line of the shot position his feet correctly and make his arm perpendicular this is all because he has been taught to him and he will have repeated the movement many times and the sequence will be set as a schema in his head which saves time and allows the performer to concentrate on other things .

Schemas are adapted to many different aspects of a sport for example in snooker if the performer is using the rest, it is a different technique but still things like his feet and his arm movements are repeated from other schema according to the sport and p. e textbook there are four things that effect schema -Initial conditions. For example position of the ball in relation to the others -Movement requirements or parameters.

For example how much spin or side or follow through is needed for each type of shot? – Outcome of the movement. Example how far the ball travelled. – Sensory consequences. Example how the shot felt, . Shema has been the subject of many sports scientists for example Schmidt and Thorndike according to shmidt and http://moon. ouhsc. edu/dthompso/mtrlrn/schmidt. htm a basketball player when shooting knows what it is expected to feel like and he/she compares the information supplied by their senses. Hence when confronted with a new situation the performer can make an attempt at the skill, based on the schema, and through practise will quickly improve. Then they can get to the standard of their other skills.

The skilled performer relies on the variety of schema that they have encountered, in other words, their experience All In all Feedback contributes hugely to the learning of skills may it be in the form of intrinsic feedback positive or negative or looking at knowledge of performance . Without feedback it would almost be impossible to get to the levels of sporting greatness that some are . as they would simply not no what they are doing rite and doing worng and without things like schema players would not be able to build upon there knowledge and tweak things to perfection , and from these things they have tweeked they can be assesd and used as feedback to teach to others.


Sport an d P. e textbook advanced P. e & Sport textbook

This type of feedback is the ‘sensory information that arises a natural consequence of producing a movement’. It can be sensed from organs in the muscles and the joints called proprioceptors and paramount in learning a skill. They send the …

Feedback is used as a guiding tool and is central for good and successful coaching and learning. In order for the learner to learn new skills, there needs to be constant observations of their actions. Feedback is information from the …

A player receiving a ball in the centre first and quickly passing it on is an open skill, it is affected by the positioning of other players on the court as well as the speed that the player receiving the …

The diagram above is a Systems Approach to human behaviour based on the model of Shedden, 1982′ (Acquiring Skill) This focuses the coach’s attention on the perception and questions whether the learner has the perceptual problem, which may require an …

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