Causes and Spread of Infection

This unit is to enable the learner to understand the causes of infection and common illnesses that may result as a consequence. To understand the difference between both infection and colonisation and pathogenic and non pathogenic organisms, the areas of infection and the types caused by different organisms. In addition, the learner will understand the methods of transmission, the conditions needed for organisms to grow, the ways infection enter the body and key factors that may lead to infection occurring.

Credit Level 2 2 Assessment criteria The learner can: 1. 1 Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites 1. 2 Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites 1. 3 Describe what is meant by “infection” and “colonisation” 1. 4 Explain what is meant by “systemic infection” and “localised infection” 1. 5 Identify poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection 2. Understand the transmission of infection 2. 1 Explain the conditions needed for the growth of micro-organisms 2.

2 Explain the ways an infective agent might enter the body 2. 3 Identify common sources of infection 2. 4 Explain how infective agents can be transmitted to a person 2. 5 Identify the key factors that will make it more likely that infection will occur Learning outcomes The learner will: 1. Understand the causes of infection Indicative content Learning outcome 1:

Understand the causes of infection Bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites: differences between different micro-organisms; how they are identified; shape; features; illnesses they cause (bacterial e.g. lyme disease, tuberculosis; fungal e. g. tinea pedis, oral thrush; viral e. g. measles, mumps); pathogenic micro-organisms Common illnesses and infections: MRSA infections (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus); Norovirus infection (winter vomiting disease); Common cold and other respiratory infections; Gastroenteritis; blood borne infections, especially Hepatitis A, B, C and HIV; Clostridium difficile;

Scabies Infection and colonisation: difference between infection and colonisation; concept of normal flora Systemic infection: definitions of localised infection (local to one area of the body) and systemic infection (affecting the whole body system) Poor practices which may spread infection: inadequate hand washing; failure to wear correct protective clothing; inadequate precautions where food is prepared/served/eaten; inadequate procedures in relation to highly infectious individuals; poor environmental hygiene; re-using equipment without proper sterilisation processes, lack of risk assessments, staff not following procedures Learning outcome 2:

Understand the transmission of infection Conditions for growth of micro-organisms: Temperature Gases Nutrients Moisture/humidity How infective agents enter body: routes of entry and exit – nose, mouth, eyes, cuts or sores on hands or other parts of the body or other natural orifices; methods inhalation, ingestion, inoculation Common sources of infection:

Micro-organisms can be present on people (especially hands, nose, mouth, genitals and anus, and any sores or wounds); in droplets produced by coughing or sneezing; in air and dust; in water; in food; carried by animals and insects Transmission of infective agents: direct (person to person) and indirect (contact through water, food/food chain, animals and insects, air/dust, droplets, contaminated items) Key factors that make infection more likely: open wounds or sores (especially on hands); vulnerability/low immunity eg very young children/babies; elderly people; people already suffering from health problems, poor practice.

EVIDENCE MATRIX Candidate name: Registration number: Unit title Ass meth Learning Outcome Assessment criteria (eg 1. 1) Learning Outcome Qualification title: Evidence description Portfolio ref The above evidence has been assessed against the standards for this element and has been judged for validity, authenticity, currency, reliability and sufficiency. Learner signature: Assessor signature Date: Date: Assessment method key: Obs = P= Q= Internal Verifier sig: (if sampled) Observation Product evidence Questioning Simulation/assignment Wt = A= Ot = Witness testimony APA/APL Other Date: Sim.

The learner can: 1. Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites? Bacteria : Bacteria are one cell structures that multiply rapidly and can become a colony of 2 million within 2 hours. Viruses : Visible can only be …

Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites? -Viruses aren’t living. They’re only made of complex proteins and nucleic acids. Bacteria, Fungi and Parasites are living organisms. – Bacteria are unicellular microorganisms. Fungi and Parasites are multicellular. – Fungi have …

Identify Common Sources of Infection Outcome 1  Understand the causes of infection 1. Identify the difference between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites? The difference between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites is: Bacteria Bacteria is a single celled organism, bacteria have …

Unit 22 Causes and spread of infection 1. 1 Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacteria – Are one cell microorganisms with a simple cellular orgaization who necleus lacks a menbrane. Viruses – peices of nucleic acid …

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