Causes and Spread of Infection

Unit 22 Causes and spread of infection

1. 1 Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.

  • Bacteria – Are one cell microorganisms with a simple cellular orgaization who necleus lacks a menbrane.
  • Viruses – peices of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) wrapped in a thin coat of protein that replicate only within the cells of living hosts.
  • Parasites – can be protazoa, yeasts or multicellular organisms such as fungi or worms that live in or on a host to obtain nourishment without providning any beniefit to the host.
  • Fungi – Group of unicellular, milticellukar or synctial spore producing organisms feeding on organic matter, which includes molds and yeasts.

1. 2 Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. These are a few illnesses and infections caused by bacteria

  • MRSA
  • Food poisioning
  • Tubercuilosis
  • Ear infections
  • Throat/tonsilitis
  • Pneumonia
  • Syphilis
  • Gonorrhea
  • Chlamydia

These are a few illnesses and infections caused by viruses

  • Common cold
  • Influenza
  • Stomach flu
  • Ear infections
  • Pneumonia
  • Warts

Herpes These are a few illnesses and infections caused by fungi

  • Valley fever.
  • Athletes foot
  • Ringworm
  • yeast infection

These are a few illnesses and infections caused by Parasites

  • Malaria
  • sleeping sickness (which is known as Trypanosomiasis)
  • Worms
  • Leishmaniasis

1. 3 Describe what is meant by infection and colonisation

  • Colonisation – Is where bacteria in some certain circumstances can cause illness, these can be found harmlessly living as part of the normal population of bacteria in tissue or on the skin, but do not always cause effects.
  • Infection – This is where bacteria/organisms which cause disease invade body tissue, establish themselves and multiply causing illness.

1.4 explain what is meant by systemic infection and localised infection

Systemic infection is one that affects a number of organs and tissues or affects the body as a whole through the blood stream, it is made up of viruses or bateria. A local infection is just in one area of the body and affects just one certain organ at a time.

1. 5 identify poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection

  • Mimimizing the risk of infection employees should provide accurate and up to date information and training
  • Continuing educastion in safe working practices for instance use of protective gloves and clothing
  • Miminising the number of staff exposed.
  • Ensuring that procedures are in place to dispose of potenitially infected material correctly
  • Ensuring that all action plans are regulary reviewed for as long as necessary
  • Making vaccines availible where applicable

2. 1 Explain the conditions needed for the growth of micro organisms

Micro organisms need food to survive, they like high protein food for instance fish and poultry, most not all organisms need warmth to grow normally best at 20-40c. They need moisture to multiply they need air to multiply, although some can without a single micro organisms become two every twenty minutes.

2. 2 Explain the ways an infective agent might enter the body

There are four main routes for infections to enter the body-

  • Down the respiratory tract into the kungs, coughs and colds, influenza and other common airborne infections are contracted in this fustion.
  • Breaks in skin, this is one of many important functions of the skin, it acts as a barrier against infection if anything penetrates the skin or the mucous membrane that lines the nose or the mouth then this provides a route for infectionto enter for instance
  • Scratches, bites, needles of puncture wounds, this will then increase the risk of infections.
  • Through the digestive tract, this can be through drinks or food that are swallowed and then they infect the stomach or bowels which then causes vomiting or diarrehea.
  • Up the urinary and reproductive systems, this is when the infection maybe localised pr then may enter the blood stream. Sexually trasmitted diseases most commonly infect the genitals. HIV/AIDS is carried through the body fluids and can be transmitted in salvia, blood or seminal fluid.


  • Rimmelzwaan, Guus F., et al. “Influenza A virus (H5N1) infection in cats causes systemic disease with potential novel routes of virus spread within and between hosts.” The American journal of pathology 168.1 (2006): 176-183
  • Bai, G-H., A. E. Desjardins, and R. D. Plattner. “Deoxynivalenol-nonproducing Fusarium graminearum causes initial infection, but does not cause DiseaseSpread in wheat spikes.” Mycopathologia 153.2 (2002): 91-98.
  • Morawska, Lidia. “Droplet fate in indoor environments, or can we prevent the spread of infection?.” Indoor air 16.5 (2006): 335-347.

1. 1. Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites All 4 are different types of pathogens Bacteria is a single celled organism that multiply by themselves. They lives within and on most living and nonliving things. The majority …

Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites? -Viruses aren’t living. They’re only made of complex proteins and nucleic acids. Bacteria, Fungi and Parasites are living organisms. – Bacteria are unicellular microorganisms. Fungi and Parasites are multicellular. – Fungi have …

Micro-organisms that cause infections are known as pathogens. They may be classified as follows: Bacteria: minute organisms about one-thousandth to five-thousandths of a millimetre in diameter. They are susceptible to a greater or lesser extent to antibiotics. Viruses: much smaller …

This unit is to enable the learner to understand the causes of infection and common illnesses that may result as a consequence. To understand the difference between both infection and colonisation and pathogenic and non pathogenic organisms, the areas of …

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