Cardiovascular fitness

Like time, the type of exercise you choose will have a big effect on the results you achieve. That’s why it’s important to know what you want to gain from your efforts. For example, if you’re looking to improve your cardiovascular fitness, then exercises like walking, jogging, swimming, bike riding, stair climbing, aerobics and rowing are very effective. Muscles often work in pairs, which work against each other. These are called antagonistic pairs. The muscles in the upper arm control the bending and straightening of the arm. The two muscles, the biceps and triceps are working against each other.

When the biceps contracts it gets shorter. It pulls on the radius and thus the lower arm is raised and the arm bends. The triceps muscle is relaxed. To straighten the arm the reverse happens. The triceps contracts straightening the arm, while the biceps relaxes. Antagonistic muscles can be found all over the body. In the iris of the eye there are two sets of muscle. There are radial muscles, which radiate from the pupil like spokes of a bicycle and there are circular muscles. The radial muscles make the pupil of the eye wider, while the circular muscles make the pupil smaller. The Warm Up.

This is very important because it gets blood flowing around the body around the rate it will be flowing when you exercise and it most importantly loosens the muscles before they begin working. A Warm Up it vital because it helps prevent injury by having the muscles prepared for exercise before they actually do the exercise. There are three main parts of a warm up 1. The Pulse Raiser 2. Muscle Stretch 3. Joint Immobilisation Muscle Stretch and Joint Immobilisation are very important in golf. For my warm up I am going to use a section of the gym and split it up as follows. Side bends.

This stretches the Oblique Muscle and also help stop a ‘Stitch. ‘ Tricep stretch. Trapezius stretch. Biceps and Lower Back Stretch. I will place my arms horizontally in line with my shoulders and turn my upper body round using momentum from the lower back and the moving of my biceps backwards. Many of these stretches can be seen on the First Tee box at every golf club. People often stretch the lower back, shoulders and arms on the first tee of in the locker room. Because I am focusing on my upper body, specially my arms and shoulders, I am not doing any leg or lower body stretches. The Cool Down.

This is used to help your body to recover after vigorous exercise. It is just as important as the warm up. I will keep active; in other words, keep moving my muscles for five minutes after training to allow my muscles to cool-down. It is very important to properly stretch the muscles that I used in the weights training. For my program I will be using weights training because it will result inAs you can see from the tables I have improved on every one of the exercise I tested. I will now show this in graphs. Here is a graph showing all my Heart Rates. This will show whether my recovery rate has increased or decreased.

In this section I am going to evaluate three main sections of my coursework, Planning, Performing and Monitoring. Then I will give a final evaluation of how I thought the P. E. P went. Planning. It was only after the pre-test that I could start planning my program because there was no point in wasting time building muscles that are adequate. This is the part of the Principle of Training called Specificity. This means that you should make sure you are working the muscles that you need to be working. In other words there is not a lot of point in me doing exercise for the legs, when the legs are not overly used in golf.

This will only tire me out and waste time. After I have now completed my exercise program I think my planning went very well. After doing all the exercises each week I found my muscles were sore, this must mean that my program was working and affecting the muscles it need to affect. I don’t think my program was too easy or too hard. I think it was perfect. I don’t think that changing the order of my exercises would have helped it much because they were all for the upper body so my upper body was going to be working the whole time. I also noticed after every week my recovery rate was decreasing.

Performing I think that I applied all the Principles of Training correctly. Specific – I chose only exercise that would affect my upper body, the aim of the program being to build up my muscles and physique for a good and strong golf swing. So I picked only upper body exercises and focused on the deltoids, biceps, triceps and lower back. In other words all the muscles used in a golf swing. Progression As you can see from the five week table at the back of this piece of coursework I often used the same weight but different amount of reps. However I did increase the weights I used quite a lot from Week 1.

By Week 5 I was working with weights up to 20KG more. However even with the weight increase I think the program was very manageable. There was no point when I had to stop and say, ‘That’s too much, I can’t do it. ‘ Nor was there any point I finished an exercise and thought, ‘That was easy. ‘ The only problem I encountered while doing my program was that I had a lot of rugby matches and badminton training. This meant I was quite tired before I even started. I felt that my program kept me busy for the whole time we were given each week and so I didn’t get bored, like you would at a gym.

I was working against the time because sometimes I would have to wait to get on a machine or use a different piece of equipment. Monitoring. All you need to look at are the tables showing my pre and post test scores to see that I chose the right exercise and worked on the right parts of my body. Those tables clearly show that in every test I was able to perform more repetitions of the exercises after than I could before. Luckily after my first week of the program I did not feel as if my program was going to be impossible, so I did not make any modifications to my exercise program at all.

I think the order in which the exercises were performed is not very important to me, because all my exercises are for my upper body in golf, so it will be working the whole time. This may be important for someone doing rugby, for instance, if they want to build their whole body they will have to space out their exercises so one part of the body doesn’t get too overworked and eventually injured. After each week my muscles felt tired and sore, which means that the program was working and I was getting stronger, then the post-test proved that I was getting stronger.

Final Overall I am very happy with the outcome of my P. E. P because I have become stronger, which was my Aim. I think that this was the best possible outcome with the time we were given to complete this coursework and the resources we were given to actually do the exercises with. The only problem was that the exercises could not always be done in the correct order because other people were using the equipment. I am very happy that I have met the aim of this coursework and think I have done it in a well-structured way.

I am also pleased that my post test scores were in fact better than my pre test scores, thus meaning I have become stronger and can now hit a more powerful golf shot. Without this happening the exercise program would have been wrong. Also from doing all the tests and exercises I have found it easier walking around the golf course as I am now less tired after a round. I have done other small tests that were not included in the P. E. P and have found that I am in fact stronger and can lift more weight on different machines in the gym. I have also noticed a few yards distance increase at the Driving Range.

This was a test I did, I hit the ball in a controlled, powerful way before the program and when I measured again after the program I was consistently hitting the ball five yards further. Form looking at all my graphs of Heart Rate and Recovery Rate I have also found out that my Rates have decreased, so the program has worked because this is what I wanted to happen because the quicker your recovery rate, the fitter you are. I am very happy with how the whole piece of coursework went and am glad that I have met the Aim of the P. E. P.

Although the cool down may not be considered vital it is just as important as the warm up and should last for around 20-30 minutes. In my PEP I will not work on any skill related fitness. However if my …

In this coursework I am aiming to improve a component of my fitness over a period of time, and to do this I need to understand fully the principles of training that will be affecting my program: The Principle of …

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Overall I enjoyed completing the training sessions and I am very pleased with the way that my fitness has improved during the course of the PEP. I feel that the weight training has increased my muscular strength and my overall …

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