A bioterrorism attack is the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs (agents) used to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants. These agents are typically found in nature, but it is possible that they could be changed to increase their ability to cause disease, make them resistant to current medicines, or to increase their ability to be spread into the environment. Biological agents can be spread through the air, through water, or in food. HISTORY.
The history of bioterrorism goes back as far as human warfare, in which there have always been efforts to use germs and disease as weapons. In the late 20th century, violent non-state actors began seeking to acquire or develop biological agents to use in attacks on civilians. < This early version of biological terrorism continued on into the 14th century where the bubonic plague was used to infiltrate enemy cities < 1984 – USA – Rajneeshee bioterrorism attack < 1993 – Japan – Aum Shinrikyo anthrax release in Kameido < 2001 – USA – Anthrax Attacks < 1710: Russians used plague victims against Swedes.
< 1767: French & Indian War: Blankets from smallpox hospitals provided to Native American- resulted into epidemic of Smallpox < World War 1- Germany sent infected horses to Allied lines. < World War 2- Japanese unit killed 731 Chinese people because of they were infected by Anthrax < 2 incidents over past 20 years involving intentional bacterial contamination of food < 1972- US & UK , Soviet Union Signed biological weapon convention Bioterrorism can be spread or disbursed by mainly three components, and those are Viruses, Bacteria, and Toxic chemical.
MEDIUMS OF BIOLOGICAL ATTACK < Chemical and biological agents can be dispersed in the air we breathe < Animals – Some diseases are spread by insects and animals, such as fleas, mice, flies, and mosquitoes. < Food and water contamination < Person-to-person spread of a few infectious agents is also possible There are mainly three agents which can cause bioterrorism or through which bioterrorism can be out. Agent A, Agent B, Agent C. Out of all of them Agent A are likely to do most of the damages to the human being as well as animals and natural resources.
Category A Biological Diseases are those most likely to do the most damage. Below are the components of Agent A < Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) < Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin) < The Plague (Yersinia pestis) < Smallpox (Variola major) < Tularemia (Francisella tularemia) < Hemorrhagic fever, due to Ebola Virus or Marburg Virus Some of the well known Viruses and Bacteria Viruses < Chicken pox < Small pox < Rabies < Distemper < Mononucleosis < Ebola hemorrhagic fever < Polio < Influenza < AIDS < hepatitis B < hepatitis C < genital herpes Bacteria.
< anthrax < Botulism < Cholera < Salmonellosis < Tuberculosis < thyroid fever < Staphlococcus infection < Bacteria living cells can make their own food and multiply separate and different from human cells easy to develop a drug that kills only bacteria (antibiotic) < Virus not a cell need to invade a living cell to multiply lives inside human cells –parasitic ,hard to make a drug that kills viruses and not human cells CAPACITY OF DISTRUCTION , [pic] According to this pyramid, this pyramid shows the destruction power of the biological attack.
The biological weapon has the most destruction capacity in it comparing to toxic chemical, radioactive chemical, atom bomb, and last but not the least nuclear attack. Biological weapon can carry out mass killing people as well as destructing animals, and harming to natural resource. In 1993, a study by the Office of Technology Assessment concluded that “a single airplane delivering 100 kilograms of anthrax spores by aerosol on a clear, calm night over Washington D. C. , could kill up to 1 to 3 million people in a three hundred square mile area surrounding Washington D. C. ” FACTS.
< According to an American scientist Richard Betts, “nuclear arms have great killing capacity but are hard to get; chemical weapons are easy to get but lack such killing capacity; biological agents have both qualities” . < Plague was also considered as biological outbreak which claimed 200000 people’s death < Fresher’s flu < Avian Flu < Human flu < Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) < H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) < Though they all were considered natural biological attack but it was still not proved that whether they were created naturally or manually, because there was no concrete support to any biological attack.
< Out of total biological attack, 13 % and 15 % attack are carried out through direct contact i. e. injection, and food and drink < 16 % and 11 % attacks are carried out through pharmaceutical contamination and water contamination which possesses largest killing capacity respectively. < While 17 % and 28 & attacks are being carried out through airborne dissemination and through some other sources respectively. NEEDS Creating biological weapon need not much investment. All you need is just some biotechnologist scientists, Samples of some viruses, bacteria, some biological toxins.
EFFECTS OF BIOTERRORISM < As far as effects is concerned bioterrorism significantly affects on tourism industries < Insurance business could also be affected by bioterrorism due to physical damages caused by the attack < Out of the total effect biological attack mainly affects on healthcare industry which is considered as affecting at 27% per year causing 120000000 losses of people as treatment every year. < Due to the bioterrorism 500000 people dies due to the discrimination every year < Previously movies were also been made describing such terrrorism such as?
Mission Impossible 2. Etc TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT < Now a days the technology is so intense that biological weapon can be created by keeping in mind the target’s DNA & biological structure so that biological weapon will harm or target only that person < Now a days most of the terrorists in the advance countries are choosing biological attack because this kind of attack are very effective in terms of physical & monetary losses STEPS FOR PREVENTION < Barrier protection (e. g. use of protective suits or sealed buildings to prevent the intake of contaminated air).
< Sterilization and disinfection (using chemicals, heat, irradiation, filtration to kill pathogens or reduce their numbers to safe limits). < Public health hygiene and personal hygiene (e. g. soap and water). < Processing food to kill pathogens or inactivate toxins. < Vaccination to create immunity to the disease.
BIBLOGRAPHY < http://www. authorstream. com/Presentation/luie-58289-Worker-Preparedness-Response-Bioterrorism-Association-Occupational-Environmental-Clinics-Section-1An-prepared-Education-ppt-powerpoint/ < http://www. fldisasterkit. com/hazards_analysis/chemical_biological_weapons. shtml.