There are many principles of training that I have to consider when I am doing my six-week training course. Below is what these principles of training are and how they relate to the programme. SPOR: Specificity- Everyone needs a different training programme because we do different sports. This is why I have to design my programme carefully to suit me. You need to train specific muscles that will help you when playing your sport. The training also needs to be at the right level.
You need to do specific exercises to help certain muscles that will help the performer do better in his field of sport. For example a weightlifter will need to be in the gym using the weight machines to increase his strength and not outside running laps around the athletics track as this will not help him bulk up and gain strength. Also if you are unfit or a beginner you should not start off with a difficult programme which would see you running five miles around a cross-country course, instead you should start off with a programme that you can handle and as you become fitter and more experienced you can adjust the programme to make it more difficult accordingly.
I will need to do specific exercises to improve the strength in my hamstrings and quadriceps in the lower body and in my upper body I will need to do exercises that will improve the strength in my arms and shoulders. Progression- The work done in your training session needs to be steadily increased as your body becomes accustomed to the work placed on it in the previous training. You should use progression because if you add the workload on your body too quickly especially at the time you start then this can lead to injury and muscle damage.
It is much more effective to add more weight or increase the difficulty of an exercise as your strength and skill increases. When you first start training you see a reasonably big improvement in a relatively short space of time but as your body adapts and reaches a certain plateau it is much harder for the performer to keep on improving at the same rate and you need to do the same amount of exercise in order to stay at this level. In order to keep improving gradually and reach the next plateau the performer will need to increase the workload that he places on his body using overload.
Overload- You have to work your body harder than you normally would to become fitter and improve your performance by pushing your body to its training threshold. Overload can be increased by using (FITT). This is Frequency, Intensity, Time and Type. Frequency- This means how often you train. The training sessions should be sufficient to bring about improvements. Generally the frequency of training increases as levels of performance increase. For example top premiership footballers would need to train most days to improve. The higher the demands in training the less frequently they will occur to allow the body to recover. If you are training two days a week you could maybe increase this to four times a week.
Intensity- Is increased by the raising of a workload. Examples would be increasing the distance being run in training or if you are doing weight-training increasing the number of repetitions or the weight being lifted. The training must be set at a sufficient level to bring about change in the body systems. Time- This determines the length of the training session. Training time for each session should be judged in accordance with fitness levels so you could increase your training time by five minutes every session as you get fitter. For the same intensity, the time should be gradually increased as cardio respiratory and muscular endurance increases.
It is important for the person to stay in their target heart rate zone, which will vary for each person as it depends upon their fitness and age, for a long enough period of time for a training benefit to be achieved. Time also relates to how long you want to spend on a particular aspect of fitness in your training programme to help you in your chosen sport. For example as I have chosen football, and upper body strength as one of my aims to help me in the sport, I can increase or decrease the amount of time that I want to work on my upper body strength.
Type- This means the type of activities included in the training programme should be the same as or closely associated with the particular sport or activity. For example in my training programme I have chosen activities such as dribbling with the ball through cones in order to improve my skill and agility for my chosen sport, football, and also doing the bent-arm hang which will improve my upper body strength and therefore help me to improve my performances on the football pitch.
Reversibility- This is just the reverse of progression. If you reduce the amount of training that you participate in the body naturally adapts to the new circumstances. Reversibility occurs a lot quicker than progression does. The aerobic capacity can be quickly reduced through lack of exercise When you stop using muscles for a long period of time the persons muscular endurance starts diminishing. Despite skill levels often remaining high, the performances of these skills may be reduced because of physical decline.
An example of reversibility could be improving physical strength through activities such as press-ups and bent-arm hang but then if you stop doing these activities then you will not be using these muscles any more so your physical strength will go in decline. This could affect performance on the football pitch as despite still having the same skill level you will not be able to carry them out as well because of a less able physique. Performing and monitoring section Below I will show my training programme for each week. For each week I have recorded on what days I performed my circuits, and on what days I did any physical activity such as matches or training for football and rugby. Below this I will write a weekly evaluation to sum up how I felt my circuits went during each week.