Anatomy and Physiology of Uterus

The female reproductive system consists of two essential parts: the uterus and the ovaries. The uterus is responsible for hosting the growing fetus, emission of vaginal and uterine secretions and permitting the male sperm to enter through the fallopian tubes (Female Infertility, 2009). The ovaries are in charge of producing female egg cells. The aim of this paper is to address the anatomical, physiological and chemical basis of the uterus in the lights of diverse and broad academic resources. Overview of the Uterus The uterus is situated deeply in the pelvic cavity between the bladder and the rectum.

Anatomically, the uterus is divided into four essential components: fundus, corpus, cervix and the internal orifice. The upper parts of the uterine tubes are open while the lower cavity is connected with the vagina (Marieb, 2000). The uterus can reinforce several portions of the body. It helps in separating and allowing the bladder to maintain its original position which located above the pubic bone. It is connected to large, complex structure of nerves, arteries and veins. Tissues known as ligaments are also interconnected with each other.

The uterus is crucial for regulating and controlling the blood supply for the period of sexual reaction. It is the essential requirement for uterine ejaculation to take place. The uterus acts as a gateway for the sperm in order to fertilize with the ova. The fetus also passes through its different stages while inside the uterus. The embryo continues to develop inside the womb till childbirth (Marieb, 2000). Anatomical barriers such as the pelvis are responsible for partially pushing the uterus inside the stomach because of its expansion throughout pregnancy.

Infertility can occur if the uterus or the fallopian tubes are damaged. This condition does not allow the sperm to enter inside the uterus (Female Infertility, 2009). The Structure and Function The uterus produces hormones and proteins which are produced because of the periodic hormonal changes occurring in the ovaries or the extended high levels of hormones in pregnancy. The changes which take place in hormones and in the lining of the uterus give rise to several prostaglandin hormones, cellular growth factors and other compounds.

The substances that are responsible for uterine contractions during the sexual climax are because of the uterus (Jelovsek, 2009). The uterus is composed of smooth muscle fibers called myometrium and it has three layers. These fibers are responsible for providing muscular support to the uterus. Uterine lining is situated inside the muscle. The myometrium is contracts the uterus during labor while the endometrium is responsible for preparing the embryo. Thus, the uterus is a highly active organ during pregnancy.

During menstruation, the myometrium and the endometrium exhibit periodic formal changes in the structure and function. The menstrual cycle is significant for the uterus because the accumulation and acquisition of male sperm takes place (Female Infertility, 2009). The estrogen secreted by the ovaries causes the myometrium to contract sporadically (Marieb, 2000). Simultaneously, the uterine lining starts to proliferate and thicken which alters it shape into a hollow formation. Dilute liquid is secreted from the uterine lining which acts as an indication of hormone release.

Towards the mid-cycle, the uterus is in position to attach progesterone. Progesterone is the female reproductive hormone that plays a prominent role in the contraction and thickening of the uterus. It provides an importance source of nutrients to the uterus. Progesterone causes the cells of myometrium to thicken but decreases its excitability and its contractions. The uterus gets ready for implantation and the endomertium is fully supplied with blood. The uterus of a pregnant woman carries the fetus. It contains the amniotic fluid and the umbilical cord.

The amniotic fluid surrounds the fetus and allows it to move. The umbilical cord is responsible for providing nutrition to the baby and excreting waste products. The umbilical cord is connects the embryo to its mother through the placenta which is attached to the wall of the uterus (Marieb, 2000). During sexual response, the uterus experiences vascular congestion and rapid drainage of it after the orgasm. Small series of quick contractions in the uterine muscle, vagina and urethral muscles are also found. Research on Uterus

Studies have identified the first molecular step which allows a seven day embryo to attach to the uterus. According to the report, the findings can be beneficial in diagnosing and treating infertility and early miscarriage. The embryo travels along the uterine wall and attaches itself which is the first phase of implantation. Researchers concluded that molecules which surround the embryo’s surface intermingle with those molecules on the mother’s uterine wall to generate sticky environment (Nijhuis, 2002).

Investigators investigated that at the right time, the external cells of the premature embryo secretes a protein while the uterus becomes rich with carbohydrates. The interaction between the protein and the carbohydrate results in gradual progression of embryo along the uterine wall (Nijhuis, 2002). The embryo attaches itself to uterine wall where it gets its nourishing blood supply from the mother through the placenta. This research can assist us to understand preeclampsia which is one of the major causes of maternal death which occurs one in fifteen first pregnancies.

It is a condition in which the placenta is not sufficiently attached to the uterine lining which cuts out the oxygen supply of the fetus and puts the mother’s life in danger. Empirical and theoretical studies conducted by researchers have found evidence that certain types of genes are responsible for insertion of fetus. These genes have been known as Hox genes that play an important part in the functions of the uterus. The genes are also known to regulate cells of endometrium at the time of implantation (Lynch & Wagner, 2005).

As mentioned earlier, that the developing embryo has proteins which attach it to the carbohydrates produced in the uterine lining. Genes have been identified that play an important role in the supply of nutrients to the uterus. They also seek to ensure the stability and firmness of the female reproductive system. The research conducted in identification of genes has allowed researchers important insight and perception regarding the dynamics of the female reproductive system. It will aid them in the development of medication and techniques to treat female reproductive disorders.

Studies show that Hox-A10 is responsible for producing those proteins. The research also gives the scientific illustration on the birth of uterus. Consequently, tissues of uterus must have thickened and the number of blood cells must have increased. The study suggests that another Hox gene called HoxA-13 took active participation in the development of the umbilical cord. Conclusion The uterus is responsible for receiving the fertilized embryo which attaches itself to the uterine lining called entometrium and receives nourishments from the blood vessels.

The uterus is an essential organ from research point of view. Different studies have been conducted on the subject of uterus which demonstrates its significance. Studies show that embryo attaches itself to uterine lining with the interaction of protein and carbohydrate mixture which helps us in understanding the major causes of maternal death caused by preclampsia. Other studies show that the Hox genes are responsible for evolution of uterus and they are responsible for regulating endometrial cells during implantation of the fetus.

The study and development of genes that play an important part in boosting and augmenting the functions of the uterus has aided researchers to understand the dynamics of the uterus. This will help them in the development of treatment options for uterus disorders. It will also help to ensure greater rates of nourishment and success for women that have become pregnant.


Lynch, V. , & Wagner, G. (2005, December). The Birth of the Uterus. Natural History, 114(10), 36-41. Retrieved May 6, 2009, from Master FILE Premier database. Marieb, Elaine N. (2000).Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology (5th ed. ). Menlo Park, California: Addison Wesley Longman Nijhuis, Jan G. (Ed. ) (2002). Fetal Behaviour: Developmental and Perinatal Aspects (Oxford Medical Publications) (1st ed. ). Oxford: Oxford University. Female Infertility… (2009, January). CRS – Adult Health Advisor, Retrieved May 5, 2009, from Health Source – Consumer Edition database. Jelovsek, Frederick (nd). Is the Uterus Necessary After Childbearing is Completed?. Retrieved May 5, 2009, from wdxcyber. com, Web site: http://www. wdxcyber. com/nmood13. htm

What are some differences between Judy and Mariah that might make Judy more “at risk” for skin? cancer than Mariah? Judy had a pasty white skin. Therefore, her skin had less melanin than Mariah who had black hair and more …

Myomectomy is a surgical procedure to remove uterine fibroids — noncancerous growths that often appear in your uterus during your childbearing years. The surgeon’s goal during myomectomy is to take out symptom-causing fibroids and reconstruct the uterus. Unlike hysterectomy, which …

Myomectomy is a surgical procedure to remove uterine fibroids — noncancerous growths that often appear in your uterus during your childbearing years. The surgeon’s goal during myomectomy is to take out symptom-causing fibroids and reconstruct the uterus. Unlike hysterectomy, which …

The heart is located in the left side of the mediastinum; it consists of three muscle layers the Endocardium, myocardium, and epicardium. The epicardium is the outermost layer of the heart. The myocardium is the idle layer of and actual …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out