Anatomy and Physiology Lab

  1. What are some differences between Judy and Mariah that might make Judy more “at risk” for skin? cancer than Mariah? Judy had a pasty white skin. Therefore, her skin had less melanin than Mariah who had black hair and more melanin and are more protected against the uv rays of sun.
  2. What observations did Judy make concerning her mole? Her mole changed shaped and turned bigger and its side were jagged. The middle was purplish-black and its edge were darker than its middle.
  3. Considering the differences between a benign tumor and a malignant tumor, why might a benign tumor be easier to treat? benign tumors do not metastasize to other parts of the body but the malignant tumors do. Therefore, physical removal of the malignant tumor does not mean that problem is solved. It could have spread to other parts of the body, and therefore, this issue must be addressed in the treatment regiment. Benign tumors grew slower than the malignant tumors as well.
  4. Judy learned that every single person has these cell cycle genes so cells in our body can divide when necessary. What are some normal circumstances where our bodies might need to make more cells? Our body might need to make more cells during repair and anabolism. Usually cells are in contact with outside world like epithelium divide cells more often that others. However those are highly specialized like red blood cells do not divide as often.
  5. Every person has these cell cycle proto-oncogenes, but not every person has cancer. Why mightthis be the case? Proto-oncogenes make cell cycle promoting factors abnormally when they are damaged via radiation (uv) or chemical carcinogen ( asbestos). These genes are important for regular functioning of the body.

However they cause problem when they are produced in large quantities. Even if these gene start producing many promoting factor usually immune system keeps their products in check.  However when immune system gets compromised then cancer would be caused. Not An Old Person’s Disease Part III—”Like Mother, Like Daughter? ”

  1. Now that you know a little more, what are the risk factors that increase a person’s chances of having melanoma? Exposure to Ultraviolet (UV) light, Moles, Fair skin, freckling, and light hair, Family history of melanoma Personal history of melanoma, Immune suppression, smoking, Age, and Xeroderma pigmentosum
  2. How does sunlight contribute to the development of melanoma? As it was mentioned above, ultraviolet radiation is main risk factor that increases the risk of getting skin cancer. UVA and UVB are the main culprits. However UVB cause the most damaged by directly effecting DNA of the skin cells. The damage target parts of DNA that have the genes that control skin cell growth. Most importantly melanocyte cells begin to over grow and masses of cells are seen on skin which are what were refer to as mole.
  3. What does it mean to be predisposed to getting cancer? If you inherit a mutated cell cycle gene, does that automatically mean that you will get cancer some day? If you inherit a mutated cell cycle gene and participate in risky behaviors such as sunbathing, does that mean that you will automatically get cancer some day? People that have one good allele of tumor repressor gene and one allele of non functional tumor repressor genes are referred to as being predisposed to getting cancer.

No, it does not mean that you would get the disease however, there are higher chance of developing the disease. It become more probable in compare to somebody with two functional gene. If I was to inherit such a gene and participate in risky behaviors, I would not be guaranteed to get the disease automatically. However, I would have a higher chance of developing cancer in compared to someone else that does the same thing and does not have the mutated gene.

1. What are some differences between Judy and Mariah that might make Judy more “at risk” for skin cancer than Mariah? (2 points) It is possible that Judy’s mother may have had a cancerous mole and could have passed on …

Genes are found in every cell of your body, controlling how each cell functions. Mutations in genes, either inherited from your mother and father or from damage that occurred during a person’s life, contribute to the growth and development of …

It is a rare condition for tumors to grow on the skeletal muscles, and if a tumor should take form it is usually a benign tumor, meaning it is small and grows relatively slow. The reason these types of cancers …

Cancer begins when one or more genes change from their normal form. This either creates an abnormal protein or no protein at all, both of which cause mutated cells to multiply uncontrollably. (Association, 2011) Melanoma can either be caused by …

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