Whole practise

This is when the learner performs the skill as a complete unit. This type of learning is best suitable for fast skills or simple skills that have maybe been demonstrated first. This gives the performer a feel for the whole movement and is also less time consuming for the teacher and the learner. Stopping a ball is a skill which would be taught by the whole method. Part practise This is used when the skill is long so it is broken down into sections then put together. Each part is practised until it is well learned and then put together to form a whole skill.

The triple jump would usually be taught using the part method. Each jump would be practised then all three put together. Whole-part-whole practise The learner will practise the skill as a whole then practise aspects of it, when they are well learned it is then put together again and practised as a whole. A game can be played with just being told the rules, then different skills of the game can be concentrated on and practised, then the game played again but the quality of the skills will be much better.

Massed practise “The skill is practised until learned without taking any breaks” (Bob Davis 2000) This is suitable for activities that are simple, when the motivation to learn is high, and practise when the player is fatigued which might be experienced in competition. Or when practise time is very short or just when the learner is able and fit. The activity will be practised without any breaks until perfect or time runs out. This requires a lot of concentrating. Distributed practise

“Practise is interspersed with breaks which can either be rest or the practise of another skill. ” (Bob Davis 2000) This is used when the skill is complex, there is danger if fatigue sets in, with young learners, when motivation for learning is low, or when the learners are not fit enough. The sessions are split into shorter sessions with breaks. Forms of Guidance The teacher also has to decide which form of guidance to use on the learners. There are three basic forms of guidance. > Visual > Verbal > Manual or Mechanical

Visual guidance is done by Demonstration, visual aids, and modifying the display. Demonstration is interesting to learners, rather than just talking their way through it, but it must be accurate and relate to their age, experience and gender. Visual aids include photographs, charts and models, these are cheap and available to the teacher. Videos are also included and are said to be most beneficial as it can be played back in slow motion. As well as demonstration videos can be used to provide feedback from the learners performance.

Modifying the display is basically enhancing aspects of the surroundings, e. g. the colour of the tennis ball, marks on a court, chalk on a gymnastic mat and coloured bibs of team players. Verbal guidance is used very much in teaching to set the task clearly and to describe the actions he/she is able to highlight the important performance cues. This method is very useful when used by a knowledgeable teacher, as it has to be clear and understandable. It is also important that it is easy for the learner to remember.

Manual or mechanical guidance involves physical contact, by the coach or pieces of equipment e. g. coach supporting the gymnast through a movement, swimming armband or tight rope. These are all to reduce error and fear and for safety. These are separated into two forms. Physical restriction- where a person or object restricts the performer from movements in a safe way, e. g. trampoline belt. Forced response- the performer is guided through a movement, e. g. the coach may physically guide the player through a forehand drive in tennis.

Coaches of all sports use many different guidance methods. The two methods that are relevant to this investigation are visual guidance and verbal guidance although there are also other methods used by coaches. Within these two categories are also many …

Fitts and Posner suggest that this progression from novice to expert can be modelled using information processing concepts. Their model, which shows the three phase of skill learning helps coaches to analyse what stage of learning their athletes are at …

Part practice can beneficial for cognitive learners, the skill can be broken down into sub-routines, which means there is a reduced chance of information overload. An example of part practice is in swimming, the swimmer can hold a float to …

The diagram above is a Systems Approach to human behaviour based on the model of Shedden, 1982′ (Acquiring Skill) This focuses the coach’s attention on the perception and questions whether the learner has the perceptual problem, which may require an …

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