1. Explain how additives are identified in blood collection tubes. By color of the tube top 2. List the 5 anticoagulants and their mode of action. EDTA, sodium citrate and potassium oxalate bind calcium. heparin inhibits conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. SPS (sodium polyethanol sulfonate) inhibits phagocytosis 3. Describe how gauge relates to the lumen of the needle. The gauge indicates the diameter or lumen of the needle 4. Identify the lab departments that would require a heparin sample, EDTA sample, potassium oxalate sample, sodium polyethanol sulfate sample, sodium citrate, and acid citrate dextrose.
Heparin: Chemisty EDTA: Hemtaology Potassium Oxalate: Chemistry Sodium Polyethanol Sulfate: Microbiology Sodium Citrate: Coagulation Acid Citrate Dextrose: Blood Bank 5. List and describe the parts of a needle. Point: sharp end of the needle Bevel: slanted end of the needle Shaft: the longer slanted part 6. List the gauges of needles used for blood donations, normal adult draws, and pediatric draws. Blood donations: 16 – 18 Adults: 20 – 21 Pediatric: 22 – 23 7. For drawing multiple tubes on a single patient, which system would be the best choice?
Evacuated Tube System 8. Complete blood clotting takes about how long? 30 – 60 minutes 9. Winged-infusion sets are to be used with what type of patient? Pediatric or elderly patients 10. Where should you stick a patient when using a winged-infusion set? Their hand 11. Describe serum, plasma, and whole blood. Serum: fluid portion of bld after clotting used for chemistry testing such as glucose. Plasma: fluid portion of bld containing an anticoagulant used for stat chemistry testing Whole Blood: is mixed w/anticoagulant to prevent clotting used for hematology cell counts (CBCs) 12. Explain the purpose of the rubber sheath in a multi-sample needle.
To prevent blood from leaking into the holder 13. What is the factor that determines which gauge needle is used for venipuncture? The patient’s veins 14. Describe the outcome of a blood sample if a large evacuated tube is used with a small diameter needle. If a large-gauge needle is used in venipuncture, collection is slower and blood cells may be hemolyzed (destroyed) as they pass through the narrower opening 15. How many times should tubes with additives be inverted? 5-8 times 16.
When is recapping a needle recommended? Never 17. When is the syringe method useful for patients? If the patient has small, fragile veins 18. List the parts of the evacuated tube system and syringe. ETS: multisample needle, evacuated tube, adapter Syringe System: plunger, barrel, needle 19. Explain the purpose of the Hemogard closure. Prevent aerosol and blood spatter 20. List the equipment necessary for a routine venipuncture. Needles, tubes, sharps disposal container, needle holders, syringes, winged infusion sets, pens, gloves, tourniquet, antiseptic, gauze, and bandages 21.
List the different types of antiseptics. Which is used for routine venipuncture? Used for blood collection 70% Isopropyl alcohol Iodine Chlorhexidine Gluconate Benzalkonium Chloride 22. List the layers anticoagulated blood when allowed to settle. 23. What should be done with anything venipuncture equipment or PPE that become soiled with blood? Disposed of in proper container 24. Explain the purpose of the tourniquet. Prevents venous blood flow which causes the veins to bulge 25. List the agents that promote clot formation in tubes. Thrombin is an additive that promotes coagulation.