Validity and reliability

It is important to realise that fitness tests must be valid, and that they actually test out what they set out to test. Fitness tests must be reliable, and therefore if the test is repeated, it must be done under the same conditions to obtain a similar result. To achieve this, the test procedures must be followed. Accurate measurements should be taken and the test should be made specific to the type of fitness that is required to be tested.

Multi-stage fitness test- Level 6.9 I had little motivation when I did this test, which could explain why this result is the lowest result I have ever got. Therefore, instead of aiming to increase my results as 0.2 of a level, I have decided that I am capable of increasing by at least one level. I have achieved 7.8 without any training at all, so I hope to be able to get level 8 with training. Sit and reach test- -7cm This result is in the fair category. I hope to reach to 0cm after the training programme, as this is the average result for women. This can be done through regular stretching exercises after gym sessions, and also through yoga.

Cooper Test- 2,100 metres This result was above average for my age group. Therefore I would like to boost my status to ‘excellent’ which requires 2,300m. This is a fairly reasonable target as I think it is achievable. Vertical Jump test Stick drop test- 21cm This is a fairly bad result. However, I performed the test twice more and got results of 14cm followed by 18cm. This shows that the test result could be completely random and questions whether the other tests should be repeated before the training programme, in order to establish an average. However, this is too time consuming.

Handgrip test- left hand- 23, Right hand 29 As expected the right hand was stronger because I am right handed and therefore use my right hand more. I will be aiming to improve by about 5 for my right hand and only two for my left. I am more likely to improve in my right because I will be using in tennis as well, whereas I only use my left hand for backhand groundstrokes, where my right-hand does most of the work anyway. This will be improved by playing regular tennis, as well as doing exercises to improve the strength of the forearms, for example wrist curls with a dumbbell.

Harvard Step test- 35.377 Bpm after 1 minute- 36 X 4 = 144 bpm 2 minutes-34 X 4 = 140 bpm + 3 minutes-34 X 4 = 140 bpm = 848 300 X 100 = 30,000 30,000/848 = 35.377 Any type of movement in my body requires a series of coordinated muscle contractions, which need a supply of energy. For movement to occur, my body must transfer stored chemical energy to mechanical, energy. The chemical energy requirement of a cell is supplied by the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

There are three basic pathways or energy systems which govern the replenishment of ATP and therefore energy supply. The system used depends on how immediate the energy is required, how intense the activity, and whether or not oxygen is present. The more intense the activity, the more I will rely on anaerobic energy production from the ATP-PC pathway. For example, if I were to do a series of short sprints in my training programme, then the energy system used would be anaerobic. The less intense and the longer the duration of the activity the more I will rely on the aerobic system of energy production.

The ATP-PC system This is an anaerobic system- i.e. oxygen is not used. This energy system involves the rapid regeneration of ATP through the energy rich compound creatine phosphate. The energy derived from phosphocreatine is not directly used for muscle contraction, but instead rebuilds ATP so that it can once again be broken down to maintain a constant supply of energy. Once the ATP is broken down to ADP (adenosine diphosphate), a free phoshate and energy used for muscular work must be resynthesised.

ATP ADP + Pi + ENERGY CP C + Pi + ENERGY This energy system should be used for explosive activities lasting roughly 10 seconds. If the exercise continues after the 8-10 second threshold of this system, the muscles must rely on other sources of energy. This energy system is used in a tennis serve for example, as the action is ballistic and requires a lot of energy quickly.

The lactic acid pathway Once the phosphocreatine has been depleted within the muscle, ATP must be resynthesised from glycogen. Carbohydrate is eaten in the form of sugar or starch and is stored in the muscles or liver as glycogen. Before glycogen can be used as an energy source for ATP resynthesis, it must be converted into the compound glucose-6-phoshate, requiring one molecule of ATP for this. The degradation of a glucose molecule to liberate energy is called glycolysis. In the initial stages of the process oxygen is not present and so is called anaerobic glycolysis.

Once the glycogen has been converted to glucose-6-phoshate, glycolysis can occur, and pyruvic acid id formed, which in the absence of oxygen is converted to lactic acid which unfortunately causes cramp and therefore pain because the change of environment in muscles for enzymes. It causes fatigue in the muscles and is only relieved by the presence of oxygen. The lactic acid system frees only a small amount of energy from the glycogen molecule (about 5%). It does however release energy quickly and provides energy between 10 seconds and three minutes. This kind of energy system is suitable in tennis for rallies where intervals between hitting the ball last only a couple of seconds.

The Aerobic system

The remaining 95% of energy is released from the glucose molecule aerobically. This system requires the presence of oxygen. And has a tremendous energy yield (18 times greater than the anaerobic processes) and takes roughly 3 minutes to extract the remaining 95% energy. The initial stages of the aerobic process are similar to the lactic acid process except that the pyruvic acid formed is converted to acetyl-coenzyme A as oxygen is now present, which is combined with oxaloacetic acid to form citric acid before it enters the Krebs cycle. Under these aerobic conditions, the glucose molecule is broken down further in the cell by mitochondria. These lie adlacent to myofibrils and exist throughout the sarcoplasm. Slow twitch fibres possess a greater number of mitochondria than fast twitch fibres, enabling them to provide a continuous supply of energy over a long period of time.

The aim of my programme is to improve my stamina and speed and I will do this by doing aerobic training. Our aerobic system provides us with long-term energy. We use it in most daily activities and it gives us …

The lactate threshold refers to a physiological barrier the human body encounters during exercise. During exercise the body uses oxygen as energy to power the muscles. The body uses three energy systems which provide energy for exercise, two of which are …

My name is Shazib Zaman, I’m 15 yrs old, my height is 6’0″, and my weight is 10st 3lbs. I have been asked to design a training program for my PE coursework. I will take into consideration training principles, my …

A Personal Exercise Programme is a training programme designed to meet specific individual needs. I have selected to make my PEP tennis specific and my aim is to improve aspects of my fitness that will make my game more successful. …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out