Upper Level Psychology

Minority Little Brothers and Sisters showed a much more dramatic lowering effect in their likelihood to use drugs than those who weren’t in ethnic groups mainly because of the factor of community and culture. Minority or ethnic groups are often tied to cultures wherein family and kin are important values and support systems. Ties with family are strong and the children are socialized to look at the family as the primary caregiver. Minority Little Brothers and Sisters respond well and in this case, much better than non-ethnic Little Brothers and Sisters because of their expectations and perceptions about family and sources of support.

Viewing a Big Brother or Big Sister as a family member gave more credence and substance to the mentoring relationship. 2. Unmeasured factors such as physical attractiveness, IQ, athletic ability and others are able to influence positive peer relationships and friendships because these are the features that generally move to form a cohesive relationship with other teens. Usually, those who have the same or similar athletic ability form a group; those with high IQ tend to band together.

This would mean that these primary factors may be responsible for reducing family risk factors. If one is physically attractive, intelligent or athletic, the consequent acceptance and peer support would influence family relations as well. 3. The case of adolescents with internalizing behaviors attracting less peer support is possible because of the patterns of behavior they exhibit. Internalizing patterns are not often found in peer groups, as this would naturally be taken as a sign of disinterest or problematic dispositions with the peers.

Also, one of peers’ functions is to be a source of support for individuals, such that instead of internalizing, the individual would speak and vent with their peers. Internalizing behavior would express distrust, disinterest and secrets to peers, effectively giving negative credence to the peer relationship. 4. One way to deal with this issue is to include children who have attended other forms of homework assistance programs in the experiment group as well. However, this would mean that the method of the homework assistance program will be tested and not the actual presence of the homework assistance program itself.

5. Children are more vulnerable to being predisposed to antisocial behavior during life transitions because this is when coping mechanisms, identity, and much of his or her personality is brought forth during transition periods. This is the time when factors such as physical attractiveness, IQ and athletic ability come into play in that peer groups and transitions between groups may happen because of the demand of such factors. If a child does not have the previously-mentioned factors, then he may not acquire a peer groups and thus develop antisocial behavior,

6. Narrative strategy of self and oral storytelling traditions of Canadian Aboriginals play a role in maintaining cultural continuity and building resilience in Aboriginal youth because of the value of shared experiences and the similarity of experiences with adults. The traditions give youth a venue to air their needs and feelings, being able to talk about experiences and emotions while gaining validation, guidance and response from family members and elders give youth some insight into themselves and acquire help from others.

Part B: Essay One risk factor for families is the presence of children with special needs. Though the child himself or herself presents a challenge and the potential for increased family stress and frustration, in certain instances this may become also a venue for resilience and for special family relationships to form. Mackay’s research study which referred to family resilience factors in cases with families caring for children with disabilities.

In this research (Mackay, 2005), resilience may be observed in families who show practices of processes that operate on their own level, which would include “strong emotional bonds, effective patterns of communication, the use of coping strategies and family belief systems, especially those based on spiritual or religious values. ” Families which exhibit the previously-mentioned factors have been seen to respond well and are resilient towards otherwise traumatic and stressful occurrences.

Also, good responses have been seen in such families when intervention is administered early and if family values and perceptions are positive and developmental. Another article wherein special needs children are a risk factor is in Heiman’s Children with Special Needs: The Role of Family. In this study, it may be seen that there are three (3) important factors which help parents cope with the stress and frustration of having a child with special needs in their family. These factors are: • Cooperation and discussion which is open to all family members, friends, other support systems and professionals,

• A bond between the parents that promotes a positive and supportive environment and lastly, • Utilization of various services available in schools, hospitals, government and the community for the diagnosis, treatment and coping with children with special needs (Heiman). Grotberg also presents another resilience factor in a new light, which is the role or parents, especially the father, in giving care to the child with special needs. It is in this light that the importance of perception and family values in the face of children with disability is seen (Grotberg, 2004).

Fathers, though a non-traditional source of primary care, must begin to have a positive perception and positive outlook in life to be able to even begin caring for a child with special needs. Here, a problem-solving perspective must be present in order for the father to be able to cope with the stress and frustration of caring for a child with disability (Grotberg, 2004). Also, it is important for the father to seek, discuss and apply information gained from various professional, filial and other sources in order to care for the child with special needs.

Indeed, in the writer’s opinion, strong, positive relationships and openness to guidance, advice and supportive relationships are important in caring for a child with special needs. Even more so than the stress felt by the child is the stress and pressure felt by the primary caregivers. Positive relationships must be present between the primary caregivers as well as the secondary and auxiliary caregivers. The community must also play a role in caring for the child by sharing information and services with the parents.

Indeed, a holistic effort must be done in order to care for a child with special needs. Part C: Web Discussion The factor discussed in this website (May, 2001)is religion or religious beliefs and traditions. This may be considered a resilience factor because it offers a support system for families and a place to turn to for guidance especially when professional and community assistance is proving to be trying. This resilience factor may also generate to other adversities because religion is part of a person’s life and would become a source of strength from an unknown source or source based on faith.


Grotberg, E. (2004). Children and Caregivers: The Role of Resilience. International Council of Psychologists (ICP) Convention. Jian, China. Heiman, T. (n. d. ). Children Wtih Special Needs: The Role of Family. Retrieved September 8, 2008, from The Open University: http://www. google. com. ph/url? sa=t&source=web&ct=res&cd=3&url=http%3A%2F %2Fwww-e. openu. ac. il%2Fgeninfor%2Fopenletter%2F12- 14. pdf&ei=e8fJSK7ZPKjgswKtsqyvCg&usg=AFQjCNGrnEKeBQeAFQxxJnaMXIx 0gt43Qw&sig2=kOJiBgtKY-q9PjlpaaTrqw Mackay, R. (2005).

Family Resilience and Good Child Outcomes: An Overview of the Research Literature. Retrieved September 8, 2008, from Ministry of Social Development: http://www. msd. govt. nz/about-msd-and-our-work/publications- resources/journals-and-magazines/social-policy-journal/spj20/family-resilience-and- good-child-outcomes-20-pages98-118. html#top May, J. (2001, March). Enhancing Personal and Family Resilience. Retrieved September 8, 2008, from Father’s Network: http://www. fathersnetwork. org/762. html? page=762&SESSION=8bc83d2fdbb5b74f3 60808943fa79810&s=0

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