Unit 4 Case Study 1 First Aid

Dehydration happens when you lose more fluid then you take in and your body doesn’t have enough fluids to carry out its normal functions. Whenever fluids are lost due to sweating, diarrhea, vomiting, etc, you must replace them or dehydration will occur. Mild to moderate dehydration can be reversed my simply increasing your fluid intake.

Severe dehydration however can result in serious health issues which require immediate medical attention. If you do not seek immediate help you may be at risk for heat injury, swelling of the brain, seizures, low blood volume, kidney failure, coma or even death. Symptoms for mild to moderate dehydration.

(In which you should increase fluids to reverse)
* Dry/sticky mouth
* Fatigue
* Thirst
* Decreased urine output
* Dry skin
* Not able to produce tears while crying
* Headache
* Constipation
* Dizziness
Symptoms for severe dehydration
(In which you should seek medical attention)
* Extreme thirst
* Lack of sweating
* Sunken eyes
* Little or no urination
* Very dry mouth, skin and mucous membranes
* Low blood pressure
* Rapid heartbeat
* Rapid breathing
* Fever
* Delirium or unconsciousness

* Drinking water
* Using an oral rehydration solution
* Avoid certain foods such as: milk, sodas, caffeinated beverages, fruit juices and gelatins * Intravenous fluids
* Avoid hot weather

First Aid for a Snake Bite
Snake bites are rare in many places in North America because most North American snakes aren’t poisonous. However, there are a few exceptions including the rattlesnake, coral snake, water moccasin and copperhead. A bite from one of these snakes can be life-threatening. Of these few snakes mentioned all are known as pit vipers and have slit-like eyes. They have triangular heads with a pit between the eye and nostril on either side of the head. Key notes to differentiate snakes for identification.

* Rattlesnakes: rattle by shaking the rings at the end of their tales * Water Moccasins: mouths have a white, cottony lining
* Coral snakes: have red, yellow and black rings along the length of their bodies * Note the length, shape, head and the eyes
*To reduce your risk of a snake bite, avoid touching them, back away slowly and do not make any sudden moves. They usually won’t attack unless they feel threatened or surprised. Signs and Symptoms of a snake bite

* Emotional instability
* Nausea
* Vomiting
* Diarrhea
* Vertigo
* Fainting
* Tachycardia
* Cold and clammy skin
* Minor pain and redness
* Tender and swollen around bite
* Lethargy
* Low blood pressure
What to do if bitten by a snake
* Remain calm
* Immobilize the bitten arm or leg and stay as quiet as possible to keep the poison from spreading through your body * Remove jewelry before swelling starts
* Position yourself so that the bite is below your heart
* Cleanse the wound and cover it with a dry, clean dressing * Apply a splint to reduce movement
* Do not apply ice or tourniquets
* Don’t cut the wound or attempt to remove the venom
* Don’t drink caffeine or alcohol
* Don’t try to capture the snake, but take notes on its appearance in order to identify it * Do not use aspirin or other pain relievers
* Call 911.

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