Thyroid hormone

Hyperthyroidism, otherwise known as thyrotoxicosis, is a disease where the thyroid is overactive. Although the thyroid is not a large-sized gland located on the front of the neck, it is a big part of the endocrine system that produces a hormone called the thyroid-stimulating hormone. These hormones play a role in regulating different parts in the body, such as metabolism, body temperature, and bone growth (N1). It even plays a role in how your heart beats! The thyroid-stimulating hormone also helps with the development of certain organs of the body in children.

(N2) An overactive thyroid gland produces substantial quantities of the thyroid hormone, which can be detrimental to one’s health, especially at a young age. There are studies that suggest individuals with hyperthyroidism may experience bone density issues when they are older (N3). The prevalence of this disease is relatively small, occurring in about 2% of women and only 0. 2% of men (N4). If untreated, the effects of this disease can be very severe. There are several causes for hyperthyroidism, which may include Graves’ disease, thyroid nodules, thyroiditis, the intake of too much iodine, and the overmedication of synthetic thyroid hormone.

The most common cause for hyperthyroidism is an autoimmune disorder called Graves’ disease, sometimes referred to as toxic diffuse goiter. With this disorder, the immune system synthesizes an antibody, “TSI” a thyroid-stimulating immunoglobin that preforms the same job as “TSH” the thyroid stimulating hormone2. Because of this mimicking effect, the many “hormones” which act the same way is an amount too extreme for the body. Thyroid nodules could be another cause of hyperthyroidism. These nodules are simply lumps that may grow into one’s thyroid. The nodules grow and gradually increase the gland’s activity.

This increases the amount of hormone in your blood, thus the term hyperthyroidism. Enlarged thyroid gland (thyroiditis) This usually can go away in a few months. Postpartum thyroiditis can be harder to diagnose and even missed because it can be seen as only postpartum blues. This disease is found to occur right after a woman gives birth and like sub-acute, the thyroid is inflamed. Eventually it becomes hyperthyroidism. Silent thyroiditis is dangerous because is painless and as the name suggests not usually found early on. It is an autoimmune disorder and leads to a permanent condition of hypothyroidism2.

The fourth cause for hyperthyroidism is the intake of too much iodine. The thyroid uses iodine in the process of making THS. This means that the amount of iodine consumed directly correlates with how much hormone is produced—too much iodine, too much hormone. A few examples of what people consume that contain iodine are: medications such as aminodarone, which is used for, heart problems, supplements that contain seaweed, and some cough syrups2. The last cause is taking too much STH, synthetic thyroid hormone. Overmedication means high levels of thyroid activity, causing too much hormone in the bloodstream.

Image 4 A major question is: who does this effect? What groups does hyperthyroidism usually target? Research suggests that women are ten times more likely to get diagnosed than men are, and especially so if they have had a thyroid problem before. Genetics play a large role as well. If you have a family history of thyroid disease, then your chances increase dramatically. Some more reasons hyperthyroidism develops are due to anemia, Vitamin B12 deficiency, type-1 diabetes, adrenal insufficiency, or a hormonal disorder2. With every disorder, there are symptoms.

Some of the main symptoms of hyperthyroidism are having difficulty concentrating, fatigue, protruding of eyes, a rapid and irregular heartbeat, weakness, hand tremors, weight loss, and increased appetite1. Some minor symptoms are blushing and flushing, hair loss, high blood pressure, increased sweating, clammy skin, and itching 1 Diagnosing hyperthyroidism cannot be concise based on symptoms alone, since its the symptoms are akin to many other diseases. If the doctor suspects that the patient has hyperthyroidism, they will perform multiple blood tests to check and see if the hormone levels in the blood are normal.

Typically, doctors will first perform the TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone) test. TSH is released by the pituitary gland and signals the thyroid to produce T3 and T4. A high TSH level means the patient has hypothyroidism, while low TSH signify hyperthyroidism. Low levels are linked to hyperthyroidism because it means the thyroid is using too much TSH (it’s overactive). Another blood tests can be done on the hormones mentioned earlier, T3 and T4. The hormone T3 (triiodothyronine), made from the hormone T4 (thyroxine), is the most active thyroid hormone that carries out the thyroid’s main functions.

Patients with hyperthyroidism will have high levels of both T3 and T4. A third way to accurately diagnose hyperthyroidism is with a TSI blood test. TSI (thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin) is an antibody, and, if present, is a red flag for Graves’ disease, which is the most common cause for hyperthyroidism. However, if the patient doesn’t have this antibody, they can still have hyperthyroidism, which is why this test is less common when diagnosing. An additional means of diagnosis is a thyroid scan.

This determines how and where iodine is distributed throughout the thyroid, which gives doctors more insight into what the specific problem is. The most common treatment of hyperthyroidism is with medication; however more serious cases call for radioiodine therapy or even thyroid surgery. One type of medication doctors will prescribe is a beta blocker. The beta blockers reduce the symptoms of hyperthyroidism, but doesn’t affect the thyroid’s hormone production. Thus, a prescription of beta blocker medication is limited as a symptomatic treatment, rather than systemic.

Another group of medications are called antithyroids. These medications directly inhibit thyroid hormone production. A common, more serious, and permanent treatment of hyperthyroidism is radioactive iodine therapy, which is the treatment Margaret was involved with. It involves patients taking radioactive iodine pills. Because the thyroid naturally uptakes iodine, the radioactive iodine gradually kills the thyroid cells, leaving other bodily tissues unharmed. After this therapy, patients usually develop hypothyroidism because their thyroid isn’t able to function.

In these cases, patients take synthetic thyroid hormones to mimic the thyroid’s function. Another treatment option is to get surgery, where doctors remove part or most of the thyroid gland. After surgery, thyroid activity will either return to normal or patients may develop hypothyroidism, where they again must take synthetic thyroid hormone. Most people in the United States receive sufficient iodine, and the incidence of toxic multinodular goiter in the US population is lower than that in areas of the world with iodine deficiency.??

Compared with regions of the world with less iodine intake, the United States has more cases of Graves disease and fewer cases of toxic multinodular goiters.?? These antibodies cause release of thyroid hormones and thyroglobulin, and they also stimulate iodine uptake, protein synthesis, and thyroid gland growth. Unless left untreated, prognosis isn’t terrible. After normalization of thyroid function with antithyroid medications, radioactive iodine ablation usually is recommended as the definitive therapy.??

Those who become hypothyroid after radioactive iodine therapy are easily maintained on thyroid hormone replacement therapy, with T4 taken once daily.?? Patients with Graves disease may become hypothyroid in the natural course of their disease, regardless of whether treatment involves radioactive iodine or surgery. 4 Although, unfortunately, almost all cases of hyperthyroidism are found to be genetic and are not preventable, there are several ways in which one can reduce the risks of developing it.

Tobacco has been shown to be a risk factor for hyperthyroidism. By simply avoiding the use of tobacco, one can prevent themselves from developing it. 10 Studies have shown that there are only a few factors that are non-genetic that have been identified to be associated with thyroid disease. One of which, as stated earlier, is iodine intake. Iodine intake plays a big role in the prevalence of goiter, the swelling of the neck caused by enlarged thyroid glands. By decreasing the amount of iodine in a diet, the risk of developing hyperthyroidism can be reduced.

Strangely, there have also been studies that show that alcohol consumption has also been linked to the effect on the thyroid gland. There have been several studies that showed that patients who were hospitalized due to alcoholism showed signs of lower thyroid volumes and lower goiter prevalence. 6 Other lifestyle factors may also be helpful in reducing the risks of developing hyperthyroidism. Some of which include daily physical activity, reducing stress, and maintaining a healthy diet. Thyroid glands are a vital part of the human body because they influence metabolism, growth and development, and body temperature.

Without the proper function of these glands, there can be many negative effects in the proper functioning of the body. Hyperthyroidism, one form of thyroid disease, is a disease that affects many people around the world. Because there is no way to prevent this disease, it is important for people to recognize the symptoms, be aware of risk factors, and get diagnosed early on in order to treat it more effectively. It is also very important to live a healthy lifestyle and avoid behaviors that may cause negative effects to the body.

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Hyperthyroidism, otherwise known as thyrotoxicosis, is a disease where the thyroid is overactive. Although the thyroid is not a large-sized gland located on the front of the neck, it is a big part of the endocrine system that produces a …

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The thyroid gland is the gland that makes and stores hormones that help regulate the heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and metabolism. Thyroid hormones are essential for the function of every cell in the body. They help regulate growth …

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