Therapeutic relationship

The field of psychology utilizes a number of statistical procedures in order to effect the applicable findings. The typical procedure behind such research is accumulated by way of study reviews, which employ the use of methodological considerations. These include deciding upon outcome measures, regulating therapy quality, as well as “investigating client and therapist characteristics and the therapeutic relationship” (Kendall et al, 1991, p. 78).

Kendall et al (1991) notes that there exist a number of issues that influence the comparison modes, such as side effects, compliance and quickness of action, all of which must be taken into overall consideration. Cooper et al (1998) notes that the dynamic psychological composition is that which defines human culture as one with “multiple-worlds theories [that] link individuals with contexts and conceptualize people as agentic in negotiating cultural boundaries” (p. 559).

It can readily be argued that the discipline of psychology is integrally related to social change and how that ultimately influences people’s perceptions and whether or not that manifests into depression. Inasmuch as culture is looked upon as a “set of universally adaptive tools” (Cooper et al, 1998, p. 559), the function of dynamic interaction is essential in order to comprehend the vast differences — as well as similarities — between the genders. Social-group processes rely upon the dynamic approach as a means by which to define cultural diversity, as well as address issues that transcend the boundary lines.

According to Segall et al (1998), the concept of behavioral therapy for the likes of depression takes into consideration the history of cross-cultural gender psychology, in that it assesses culture as an “indispensable component in the understanding of human behavior” (p. 1101). Because there exists myriad contrarieties in the manner in which genders behave from culture to culture, such perspectives as relativism and absolutism are integral components in understanding the association with depression.

“When all of psychology finally takes into account the effects of culture on human behavior (and vice versa), terms like cross-cultural and cultural psychology will become unnecessary” (Segall et al, 1998, p. 1101). Scientists have long questioned the process of collecting and interpreting data in order to “optimize the possibilities for cumulative scientific knowledge” (Schmidt, 1992, p. 1173). Many within the field adopt traditional procedures that base their findings upon statistical findings; this particular method is chosen over others because of its ability to decrease the possibility of sampling errors.

Meta-analysis, another data collection procedure where psychologists can obtain research results, is one that experts say can solve problems of “erroneous conclusions” (Schmidt, 1992, p. 1173) that other methods might produce. It is a matter of personal opinion which data collection method a psychologist might prefer for gender-related depression, based primarily upon how accurately that particular procedure produces the desired information.

As Wertz (1998) notes: “Unlike physical things, mental life contains no independent elements but different moments mutually implicating each other in the whole” (p. 42).

CONCLUSION While depression may be an equal opportunity disease, the manner by which it is initially cultivated and ultimately manifested is quite different between the genders. Scientific research has suggested that a combination of social, cultural and environmental factors is collectively at work to individualize the often covert and sometimes covert gender responses that trigger depression.

Hoyle (1991) notes that these relationships, which have to do with items that “indirectly measure a psychological construct and relations among psychological constructs” (p. 67), are the focus determining variables. The manner by which depression overtakes each gender is a varied as how the illness is ultimately manifested. While men may internalize their disease, women typically express it through emotional demonstration.

There is no concrete equation as to why men react differently than women to the same stimuli, whether that particular motivational factor happens to stem from external forces or internal distress. Indeed, research has more than effectively documented the obvious and contrasting ways in which men and women exist in order to build a foundational basis of fact. Clearly indicative of how environmental, social and cultural components reflect a gender difference in depression is how men and women have come to deal with various situations that arise.

Indeed, research has shown that while genetic consideration is strong with regard to depression, other outside influences have been known to contribute, as well. That men are taught to be strong and fearless adds to their inability to process their emotions, ultimately causing a backup of emotional distress that leads to depression. Women, on the other hand, while able to express themselves, often find that they are up against an emotional brick wall nonetheless.

Characteristically speaking, depression may affect men and women in the same general way; however, the manner by which it is first cultivated and then manifested is quite different between genders.


Anonymous (1998, November). Glial deal in mood disorders. (depression sufferers have shortage of glial cells). Science News, pp. 296(1). Anonymous (1996, June). Parent-child speaking differentiated by gender early on. Morning Edition (NPR), pp. PG. Cooper, Catherine R. ; Denner, Jill (1998, Annual). Theories linking culture and psychology: universal and community-specific processes.

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